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Postwar Europe. Emergence of Superpowers U.S. and USSR emerged from WWII as superpowers U.S. and USSR emerged from WWII as superpowers Ideological differences.

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Presentation on theme: "Postwar Europe. Emergence of Superpowers U.S. and USSR emerged from WWII as superpowers U.S. and USSR emerged from WWII as superpowers Ideological differences."— Presentation transcript:

1 Postwar Europe

2 Emergence of Superpowers U.S. and USSR emerged from WWII as superpowers U.S. and USSR emerged from WWII as superpowers Ideological differences between the two lead to a period of tension and hostility known as the Cold War Ideological differences between the two lead to a period of tension and hostility known as the Cold War –Capitalism v. communism –Democracy v. totalitarianism

3 Origins of the Cold War Although the Cold War took place after WWII, the conflict began before the war was over Although the Cold War took place after WWII, the conflict began before the war was over –Yalta Conference (Feb, 1945) Potsdam Conference (July, 1945) Potsdam Conference (July, 1945) –War over in Europe –Soviet Union had installed communist governments in many Eastern European states

4 Winston Churchill Winston Churchill “…an iron curtain has descended across the continent…”

5 Truman Doctrine Franklin D. Roosevelt died in April, 1946. His V.P. Harry Truman took office Franklin D. Roosevelt died in April, 1946. His V.P. Harry Truman took office 1946: Truman issued the Truman Doctrine 1946: Truman issued the Truman Doctrine “I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” “I believe it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures” –First used to grant $400 million in aid to Greece and Turkey to assist with their fight against a communist takeover

6 Put that in your pipe and smoke it!

7 Marshall Plan The U.S. started to see itself as the defender of democracy and capitalism The U.S. started to see itself as the defender of democracy and capitalism Marshall Plan allowed the U.S. to offer financial aid to help rebuild the war-torn countries of Western Europe Marshall Plan allowed the U.S. to offer financial aid to help rebuild the war-torn countries of Western Europe –Motive: a strong economy is more resistant to the spread of communism….plus, if we help them, they will be on our side!

8 Cold War Alliances NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) –Formed in 1949 –U.S. and its allies Warsaw Pact Warsaw Pact –Formed in 1955 –Soviet Union and its allies

9 Cold War Alliances

10 Arms Race The U.S. and USSR competed for military superiority The U.S. and USSR competed for military superiority –1945: U.S. successfully detonates an atomic weapon –1949: USSR successfully detonates an atomic weapon –1952: U.S. successfully tests a hydrogen bomb –1953: USSR successfully tests a hydrogen bomb The two superpowers also begin to develop missile technologies that could be used to deliver their bombs The two superpowers also begin to develop missile technologies that could be used to deliver their bombs –ICBM’s: intercontinental ballistic missiles

11 The United Nations Atlantic Charter: agreement between Churchill and Roosevelt that called for the creation of an international peacekeeping organization Atlantic Charter: agreement between Churchill and Roosevelt that called for the creation of an international peacekeeping organization United Nations created in 1945 United Nations created in 1945

12 The United Nations Structure of the UN Structure of the UN –General Assembly: composed of all member nations –Security Council  Composed of 15 nations (serve in the Security for two years before being replaced by a different nation)  5 Permanent Members: Britain, China, France, Russia (Soviet Union), and the U.S. –Permanent members have veto power

13 Containment and Cold War conflict Containment: U.S. policy during Cold War to keep communism from spreading Containment: U.S. policy during Cold War to keep communism from spreading –“Long Telegram” by George Kennan Military conflicts result from this policy Military conflicts result from this policy –Korean War –Vietnam War

14 Korean War 1950-1953 1950-1953 North Korea became communist North Korea became communist –Was aided by China (People’s Republic of China), which had become communist in 1949 South Korea aided by the U.S. South Korea aided by the U.S. War ended with the creation of a DMZ at the 38 th Parallel War ended with the creation of a DMZ at the 38 th Parallel

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16 Vietnam War 1954: Vietnam gains independence from France. Ho Chi Minh installed a communist government in northern Vietnam 1954: Vietnam gains independence from France. Ho Chi Minh installed a communist government in northern Vietnam The U.S. stepped in to aid the South The U.S. stepped in to aid the South –Eisenhower offered aid to the South Vietnamese government –JFK sent ground and air troops to aid the south in their fight against the guerilla fighters from the north (known as the Viet Cong) –Lyndon B. Johnson escalated the war –Richard Nixon vows to reduce U.S. involvement while simultaneously ordering bombing raids into Cambodia 1973: U.S withdrew from the war 1973: U.S withdrew from the war 1975: Vietnam was reunited under a single communist government 1975: Vietnam was reunited under a single communist government

17 Ho Chi Minh Ho Chi Minh

18 Cuban Missile Crisis “Hot” point of the Cold War “Hot” point of the Cold War Cuba became communist when Fidel Castro led a coup against Batista, the previous ruler of Cuba Cuba became communist when Fidel Castro led a coup against Batista, the previous ruler of Cuba –Cuba allied itself with the USSR 1961: U.S. attempts to assassinate Castro 1961: U.S. attempts to assassinate Castro –Bay of Pigs invasion 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis 1962: Cuban Missile Crisis

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21 Cuban Missile Crisis USSR (led by Nikita Khrushchev) and the U.S. (led by JFK) face off over nuclear missiles in Cuba and Turkey USSR (led by Nikita Khrushchev) and the U.S. (led by JFK) face off over nuclear missiles in Cuba and Turkey Came very close to war Came very close to war Ended with both sides making a compromise Ended with both sides making a compromise –U.S. agreed to remove missiles from Turkey –USSR agreed to remove missiles from Cuba

22 The Space Race 1957: Soviets successfully launch the first man-made satellite into space 1957: Soviets successfully launch the first man-made satellite into space –Sputnik U.S. fears they are “losing” the Cold War U.S. fears they are “losing” the Cold War –Increase government spending on math and science education –NASA created to build our own space program

23 Eastern Europe during the Cold War After WWII, Soviet forces occupied Eastern European states After WWII, Soviet forces occupied Eastern European states These states became known as “Satellite States” These states became known as “Satellite States” –Under Soviet influence –Their governments and economies controlled by the Soviet Union

24 Yugoslavia Communist government led by Tito (Josip Broz) Communist government led by Tito (Josip Broz) During WWII, Tito had led an anti-Nazi movement, which helped him gain popularity in S.E. Europe During WWII, Tito had led an anti-Nazi movement, which helped him gain popularity in S.E. Europe Yugoslavia was created as a “hodgepodge” of territories Yugoslavia was created as a “hodgepodge” of territories –Very ethnically diverse Tito led Yugoslavia until his death in 1980 Tito led Yugoslavia until his death in 1980

25 Destalinization Nikita Khrushchev became the Soviet leader after the death of Stalin in 1953. Nikita Khrushchev became the Soviet leader after the death of Stalin in 1953. –He denounced many of the repressive policies used by Stalin –“Destalinization” –Khrushchev’s speech to the Twentieth Party Congress, 1956

26 Stirrings of revolt in Eastern Europe 1956: worker protests erupt in Poland 1956: worker protests erupt in Poland 1956: Hungary revolts and declares itself an independent state 1956: Hungary revolts and declares itself an independent state 1968: “Prague Spring” 1968: “Prague Spring” –Leader of Czechoslovakia, Alexander Dubcek, instituted reforms  Free speech and press, relaxation of secret police, relaxation of travel restrictions, etc. In all three cases, the Soviet Union used its military to put down the unrest and restore order In all three cases, the Soviet Union used its military to put down the unrest and restore order

27 Political and Economic Recovery in Europe

28 Devastation of WWII Widespread damage Widespread damage –Bombings left cities in rubble –homelessness Shortages of basic necessities Shortages of basic necessities The Marshall Plan was used to help rebuild the war-torn areas of Western Europe. The Marshall Plan was used to help rebuild the war-torn areas of Western Europe. –$9.4 Billion in loans and aid from 1947-1950

29 Recovery in Western Europe 1950’s and 1960’s was a time of growth and prosperity in Western Europe 1950’s and 1960’s was a time of growth and prosperity in Western Europe Many nations transitioned into a postindustrial economy. Many nations transitioned into a postindustrial economy. –Service jobs grew: technology, health care, business, finance, education, legal services, etc. –Manufacturing jobs and agricultural jobs reduced

30 West Germany 1949: Federal Republic of Germany was officially created (West Germany) 1949: Federal Republic of Germany was officially created (West Germany) –Konrad Adenauer appointed as Chancellor –Germany’s economy flourished in the 1960’s  A recession in 1973 eventually curbed the growth –Immigration into West Germany grew during the 60’s

31 West Germany 1970’s: Willy Brandt assumed control of West Germany 1970’s: Willy Brandt assumed control of West Germany –Worked to improve relations with East Germany and the Soviet Union  Ostpolitik: Brandt’s policy of improving relations between East and West Germany

32 France During WWII, France was occupied by the Germans and the French government dissolved; a puppet government created During WWII, France was occupied by the Germans and the French government dissolved; a puppet government created –Vichy government In 1944, France was liberated from Nazi control and the Fourth Republic created. In 1944, France was liberated from Nazi control and the Fourth Republic created. –Very weak government

33 France Algerian Crisis Algerian Crisis –Algeria launched a war for independence from France


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