6The Cold War lasted almost 50 years saw the USA and USSR (Russia) face each otherthreatened the whole planet with annihilationnever became a “hot” warwas finally won by the USAgave birth to an even bigger threat to the planet…Now lets go back in time to see where the hostility between the U.S. and the Soviet Union started….
7Questions Cornell Notes: The Cold War Essential Question: Who started the Cold War?________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Take out a piece ofPaper and createCornell notes
8Cause #1: Western Intervention in the Russian Civil War *Describe what you see.*How are people dressed?*What might have happened here?*Why might soldiers kill their fellow citizens?*What might happen next?
9World War IRussia lost 40x more men than U.S.lost 26% of populationLost 27 % of landThe Russian Civil WarReds (communists) vs. Whites (anti-communists)
10Western nations intervene Contributed $ and troops to White armyThe U.S. sent 10,000 troops to help the White army.Blockaded the Soviet Union’s coastline1920-Red army defeats the Whitescommunist government furious at Allies (roots of hostility)Memory of western intervention lingers with Soviet people and leaders
11Who Was to Blame for the hostility between the U.S. & USSR? Complete this sentence frame:The ___________ is to blame for the hostility because ___________________________________________________
12Cause #2 An Uneasy Alliance Between the Soviet Union and the West What do you see here?How are the three men in front dressed?What might these leaders be talking about at the end of World War II?What might they thinkof each other? Why?
13Stalin and Hitler as Brief Allies 1939 -Non-Aggression PactGermany and the Soviet Union agree not to invade each other.confirmed American distrust of Nazis and SovietAmericans believed there was:“no difference between communism and fascism”
14An Unlikely Alliance1941 Germany attacks USSRStalin makes alliance with U.S. and AlliesAn Uneasy AllianceSoviets feel that they bore brunt of Hitler’s onslaught and disagree over war strategiesStalin angry at Allies for not fighting on the western frontThis will cause many casualties for the Soviet Union
16Who Was to Blame for the hostility between the U.S. & USSR? Complete this sentence frame:The ___________ is to blame for the hostility because ___________________________________________________
17Cause #3 Conflicts in Postwar Europe What do you see here?How are the three men in front dressed?Which three countries do they represent?What might these leaders be talking about at the end of WWII?What might they think of each other? Why?
18Stalin and Truman and the Start of the Cold War What motivated Truman?Truman wanted the USA to be able to maintain its position as the world’s dominant power"We have about 50% of the world's wealth, but only 6.3% of its population....In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment.... We should cease to talk about vague and...unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.“ National Security Council Policy Statement 20What motivated Stalin?Paranoia – Stalin was afraid of ALL kinds of threats to his powerHistory – Russia had been invaded many times from the West (twice within the last 30 years)American Policy – the USA was very hostile to communist Russia and Stalin knew the Americans wanted to see communist Russia destroyedCIA actions in Western Europe – the French and Italian resistances to the Fascists during the war were led by communists who became targets of the CIA when WWII endedIn early 1946, Stalin refuses to allow elections in the Eastern European countries under Russian control.IN 1946 President Truman announces that the USA would stop “babying the Soviets” and aggressively move to block communist influence through a policy of CONTAINMENTIn 1947 the President announces the TRUMAN DOCTRINE, declaring that the USA would give any assistance to any country trying to fight communism.
19Film Clip: Ideological Differences Movie should play automatically. If not, close the power point and double-click on movie icon
20The Emergence of Two Superpowers Soviet Union: Communism One-party ruleEconomic EqualityUnited StatesCapitalismDemocracyindividualismImages by Flags-to-Print.com (U.S. Flag)(Soviet Flag)
21The Marshall Plan by 1947, Europe’s economy was a mess unemployment and food shortages threatened Europe’s stabilitythe USA bailed out Europe with a huge financial assistance program called the Marshall Plan
22The Truman Doctrine (Modified) 1. At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms.2. I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.3. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes.4. The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world. And we shall surely endanger the welfare of this nation.5. Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events.Source: Excerpt from the “Truman Doctrine Speech,” delivered by PresidentTruman to Congress on March 12, 1947.The Truman Doctrine Speech should play automatically
23The Truman Doctrine Who is the speaker? When was this speech given? Who was Truman talking to and what do you think he was asking for?Close reading: Why did Truman believe Greece needed American aid in 1947?Context: According to Truman, what have the Soviets done to break the Yalta Agreement? In the second paragraph what freedoms will we lose if Communism spreads?Close reading: Does Truman present American policy as offensive or defensive? What will be the weapon in fighting communism?What do free people of the expect from America according to Truman?
24A Divided Europe: The Yalta Conference “The Big Three” – Stalin, Roosevelt, ChurchillPurpose: to map out new post-war EuropeAgreed on a military strategy to end WWIIStalin wanted to create a Soviet-controlled buffer zoneWHY???...Let’s go back in time and find out…
25To defeat the Nazis, the Red Army invaded Germany. Stalin remembered that his country had recently been invaded three times from the west.Stalin leaves the Red Army in Eastern Europe.
26Yalta Conference: Germany Germany would be divided into four zones The four zones are:a. Americanb. Britishc. Frenchd. Soviet
28Potsdam Conference Creation of the United Nations Who: 191 members including the U.S.What: Organization of countries of the worldWhy: To bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and global development.Where: headquarters in New York CityWhen: Oct. 24, 1945Universal Declaration of Human RightsKeeps peace in the worldFriendly relations between countriesHelps people live better livesEliminate poverty, disease, and illiteracyStop environmental destruction
30Potsdam Conference Truman and Stalin met to discuss postwar Europe Soviet Union promised free elections in Eastern EuropeStalin went against his word and established Soviet-controlled governments in Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and Czechoslovakia30
31From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
32The Iron Curtain Speech by Winston Churchill It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe.From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow.In a great number of countries, far from the Russian frontiers and throughout the world, Communist fifth columns are established and work in complete unity and absolute obedience to the directions they receive from the Communist center.I do not believe that Soviet Russia desires war. What they desire is the fruits of war and the indefinite expansion of their power and doctrines.But what we have to consider here today while time remains, is the permanent prevention of war and the establishment of conditions of freedom and democracy as rapidly as possible in all countries.Source: Excerpt from the “Iron Curtain Speech” delivered by Winston Churchill,March 1946 in Fulton, Missouri.Sourcing: Who was Winston Churchill? When did Churchill give his speech? Why would Americans trust what he has to say about the Soviet Union?What did Churchill mean by Iron Curtain? _If a country was inside the Soviet sphere, who would influence them?Close reading: What does Churchill claim that the Soviet Union wanted?What is “the Fruits of war”?
33Who Was to Blame for the hostility between the U.S. & USSR? Complete this sentence frame:The ___________ is to blame for the hostility because ___________________________________________________
34Cause #4 European Recovery Programs What do you see here?What country will provide the aid to western Europe?What would be the reason to provide aid?Why do you suppose eastern Europe did not receive this aid package?s
35The Marshall PlanTruman feared that Europe was on the brink of economic collapse & would leave countries vulnerable to soviet-influence.$17 billion aid package sent to EuropeWe must be prepared to pay the price of peace, or assuredly we shall pay the price of war.
36The Molotov PlanThe Soviet Union refused to let Eastern European nations accept loans from the Marshall Plan.They created their own economic aid package designed to support war-torn Eastern Europe.These economic alliances hardened the division between the East and the West & increased tensions between the superpowers.
37The artists highlights the differences in western and eastern Europe. The USA tried to rebuild Europe by giving massive assistance to European countries (who had to spend the aid on American goods) with the Marshall Plan.In response to the Marshall Plan, Stalin announced the Molotov Plan for Eastern Europe.The artists highlights the differences in western and eastern Europe.Notice the use of the Hammer and Sickle symbols.Instead of being used as symbols of freedom, the artist manages to change the symbols as a yoke that turned people into farm animals.
38Who Was to Blame for the hostility between the U.S. & USSR? Complete this sentence frame:The ___________ is to blame for the hostility because ___________________________________________________
39The Cold War Begins!!!1948 Walter Lippman use Cold War to describe the “constant war of nerves” that had developed between the U.S. and the USSR
40Write a paragraph summary answering the prompt: Wrap-UpWrite a paragraph summary answering the prompt:Who started the Cold War?Use the sentence frame template if needed