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Who Started the Cold War?

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Presentation on theme: "Who Started the Cold War?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Who Started the Cold War?

2 Pair-Share During WWII the U.S. and the Soviet Union were allies. After WWII they became bitter enemies. What could be the reasons for the hostilities between the U.S. and the Soviet Union after WWII?

3 Objective SWBAT determine who was the cause of the Cold War by writing a paragraph summary.

4 Who started the Cold War?
Essential Question Who started the Cold War?

5 Film Clip: The World After World War II

6 The Cold War lasted almost 50 years
saw the USA and USSR (Russia) face each other threatened the whole planet with annihilation never became a “hot” war was finally won by the USA gave birth to an even bigger threat to the planet… Now lets go back in time to see where the hostility between the U.S. and the Soviet Union started….

7 Questions Cornell Notes: The Cold War
Essential Question: Who started the Cold War? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Take out a piece of Paper and create Cornell notes

8 Cause #1: Western Intervention in the Russian Civil War
*Describe what you see. *How are people dressed? *What might have happened here? *Why might soldiers kill their fellow citizens? *What might happen next?

9 World War I Russia lost 40x more men than U.S. lost 26% of population Lost 27 % of land The Russian Civil War Reds (communists) vs. Whites (anti-communists)

10 Western nations intervene
Contributed $ and troops to White army The U.S. sent 10,000 troops to help the White army. Blockaded the Soviet Union’s coastline 1920-Red army defeats the Whites communist government furious at Allies (roots of hostility) Memory of western intervention lingers with Soviet people and leaders

11 Who Was to Blame for the hostility between the U.S. & USSR?
Complete this sentence frame: The ___________ is to blame for the hostility because ___________________ ________________________________

12 Cause #2 An Uneasy Alliance Between the Soviet Union and the West
What do you see here? How are the three men in front dressed? What might these leaders be talking about at the end of World War II? What might they think of each other? Why?

13 Stalin and Hitler as Brief Allies
1939 -Non-Aggression Pact Germany and the Soviet Union agree not to invade each other. confirmed American distrust of Nazis and Soviet Americans believed there was: “no difference between communism and fascism”

14 An Unlikely Alliance 1941 Germany attacks USSR Stalin makes alliance with U.S. and Allies An Uneasy Alliance Soviets feel that they bore brunt of Hitler’s onslaught and disagree over war strategies Stalin angry at Allies for not fighting on the western front This will cause many casualties for the Soviet Union


16 Who Was to Blame for the hostility between the U.S. & USSR?
Complete this sentence frame: The ___________ is to blame for the hostility because ___________________ ________________________________

17 Cause #3 Conflicts in Postwar Europe
What do you see here? How are the three men in front dressed? Which three countries do they represent? What might these leaders be talking about at the end of WWII? What might they think of each other? Why?

18 Stalin and Truman and the Start of the Cold War
What motivated Truman? Truman wanted the USA to be able to maintain its position as the world’s dominant power "We have about 50% of the world's wealth, but only 6.3% of its population....In this situation, we cannot fail to be the object of envy and resentment.... We should cease to talk about vague and...unreal objectives such as human rights, the raising of the living standards, and democratization. The day is not far off when we are going to have to deal in straight power concepts. The less we are then hampered by idealistic slogans, the better.“ National Security Council Policy Statement 20 What motivated Stalin? Paranoia – Stalin was afraid of ALL kinds of threats to his power History – Russia had been invaded many times from the West (twice within the last 30 years) American Policy – the USA was very hostile to communist Russia and Stalin knew the Americans wanted to see communist Russia destroyed CIA actions in Western Europe – the French and Italian resistances to the Fascists during the war were led by communists who became targets of the CIA when WWII ended In early 1946, Stalin refuses to allow elections in the Eastern European countries under Russian control. IN 1946 President Truman announces that the USA would stop “babying the Soviets” and aggressively move to block communist influence through a policy of CONTAINMENT In 1947 the President announces the TRUMAN DOCTRINE, declaring that the USA would give any assistance to any country trying to fight communism.

19 Film Clip: Ideological Differences
Movie should play automatically. If not, close the power point and double-click on movie icon

20 The Emergence of Two Superpowers Soviet Union: Communism
One-party rule Economic Equality United States Capitalism Democracy individualism Images by (U.S. Flag) (Soviet Flag)

21 The Marshall Plan by 1947, Europe’s economy was a mess
unemployment and food shortages threatened Europe’s stability the USA bailed out Europe with a huge financial assistance program called the Marshall Plan

22 The Truman Doctrine (Modified)
1. At the present moment in world history nearly every nation must choose between alternative ways of life. The choice is too often not a free one. One way of life is based upon the will of the majority, and is distinguished by free institutions, representative government, free elections, guarantees of individual liberty, freedom of speech and religion, and freedom from political oppression. The second way of life is based upon the will of a minority forcibly imposed upon the majority. It relies upon terror and oppression, a controlled press and radio, fixed elections, and the suppression of personal freedoms. 2. I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures. 3. I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes. 4. The free peoples of the world look to us for support in maintaining their freedoms. If we falter in our leadership, we may endanger the peace of the world. And we shall surely endanger the welfare of this nation. 5. Great responsibilities have been placed upon us by the swift movement of events. Source: Excerpt from the “Truman Doctrine Speech,” delivered by PresidentTruman to Congress on March 12, 1947. The Truman Doctrine Speech should play automatically

23 The Truman Doctrine Who is the speaker?
When was this speech given? Who was Truman talking to and what do you think he was asking for? Close reading: Why did Truman believe Greece needed American aid in 1947? Context: According to Truman, what have the Soviets done to break the Yalta Agreement? In the second paragraph what freedoms will we lose if Communism spreads? Close reading: Does Truman present American policy as offensive or defensive? What will be the weapon in fighting communism? What do free people of the expect from America according to Truman?

24 A Divided Europe: The Yalta Conference
“The Big Three” – Stalin, Roosevelt, Churchill Purpose: to map out new post-war Europe Agreed on a military strategy to end WWII Stalin wanted to create a Soviet-controlled buffer zone WHY???... Let’s go back in time and find out…

25 To defeat the Nazis, the Red Army invaded Germany.
Stalin remembered that his country had recently been invaded three times from the west. Stalin leaves the Red Army in Eastern Europe.

26 Yalta Conference: Germany Germany would be divided into four zones
The four zones are: a. American b. British c. French d. Soviet

27 Potsdam Churchill Truman Stalin

28 Potsdam Conference Creation of the United Nations
Who: 191 members including the U.S. What: Organization of countries of the world Why: To bring all nations of the world together to work for peace and global development. Where: headquarters in New York City When: Oct. 24, 1945 Universal Declaration of Human Rights Keeps peace in the world Friendly relations between countries Helps people live better lives Eliminate poverty, disease, and illiteracy Stop environmental destruction

29 United Nations Headquarters: New York City

30 Potsdam Conference Truman and Stalin met to discuss postwar Europe
Soviet Union promised free elections in Eastern Europe Stalin went against his word and established Soviet-controlled governments in Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria, Romania and Czechoslovakia 30

31 From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

32 The Iron Curtain Speech by Winston Churchill
It is my duty, however, to place before you certain facts about the present position in Europe. From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of the ancient states of Central and Eastern Europe. Warsaw, Berlin, Prague, Vienna, Budapest, Belgrade, Bucharest and Sofia; all these famous cities and the populations around them lie in what I must call the Soviet sphere, and all are subject, in one form or another, not only to Soviet influence but to a very high and in some cases increasing measure of control from Moscow. In a great number of countries, far from the Russian frontiers and throughout the world, Communist fifth columns are established and work in complete unity and absolute obedience to the directions they receive from the Communist center. I do not believe that Soviet Russia desires war. What they desire is the fruits of war and the indefinite expansion of their power and doctrines. But what we have to consider here today while time remains, is the permanent prevention of war and the establishment of conditions of freedom and democracy as rapidly as possible in all countries. Source: Excerpt from the “Iron Curtain Speech” delivered by Winston Churchill, March 1946 in Fulton, Missouri. Sourcing: Who was Winston Churchill? When did Churchill give his speech? Why would Americans trust what he has to say about the Soviet Union? What did Churchill mean by Iron Curtain? _ If a country was inside the Soviet sphere, who would influence them? Close reading: What does Churchill claim that the Soviet Union wanted? What is “the Fruits of war”?

33 Who Was to Blame for the hostility between the U.S. & USSR?
Complete this sentence frame: The ___________ is to blame for the hostility because ___________________ ________________________________

34 Cause #4 European Recovery Programs
What do you see here? What country will provide the aid to western Europe? What would be the reason to provide aid? Why do you suppose eastern Europe did not receive this aid package? s

35 The Marshall Plan Truman feared that Europe was on the brink of economic collapse & would leave countries vulnerable to soviet-influence. $17 billion aid package sent to Europe We must be prepared to pay the price of peace, or assuredly we shall pay the price of war.

36 The Molotov Plan The Soviet Union refused to let Eastern European nations accept loans from the Marshall Plan. They created their own economic aid package designed to support war-torn Eastern Europe. These economic alliances hardened the division between the East and the West & increased tensions between the superpowers.

37 The artists highlights the differences in western and eastern Europe.
The USA tried to rebuild Europe by giving massive assistance to European countries (who had to spend the aid on American goods) with the Marshall Plan. In response to the Marshall Plan, Stalin announced the Molotov Plan for Eastern Europe. The artists highlights the differences in western and eastern Europe. Notice the use of the Hammer and Sickle symbols. Instead of being used as symbols of freedom, the artist manages to change the symbols as a yoke that turned people into farm animals.

38 Who Was to Blame for the hostility between the U.S. & USSR?
Complete this sentence frame: The ___________ is to blame for the hostility because ___________________ ________________________________

39 The Cold War Begins!!! 1948 Walter Lippman use Cold War to describe the “constant war of nerves” that had developed between the U.S. and the USSR

40 Write a paragraph summary answering the prompt:
Wrap-Up Write a paragraph summary answering the prompt: Who started the Cold War? Use the sentence frame template if needed

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