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 starter activity By the 1970s the US and the USSR each had enough nuclear weapons to blow the world up several times over. Can you explain this cartoonist’s.

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Presentation on theme: " starter activity By the 1970s the US and the USSR each had enough nuclear weapons to blow the world up several times over. Can you explain this cartoonist’s."— Presentation transcript:

1  starter activity By the 1970s the US and the USSR each had enough nuclear weapons to blow the world up several times over. Can you explain this cartoonist’s joke?

2 Characteristics of Cold War Suspicions between capitalists & communists Propaganda Espionage Nuclear arms race Space race

3 Why did the wartime alliance breakdown? Background to the Cold War

4 Steps to the political, economic and military division of Europe Steps to the political, economic and military division of Europe

5 The Breakdown of the Grand Alliance STEP 1: The Wartime Conferences STEP 1: The Wartime Conferences Note the changes of personnel Note the changes of personnel TEHRAN- the need for a ‘second front’. No decision on the future of Germany / unconditional surrender / Poland / Eastern Europe TEHRAN- the need for a ‘second front’. No decision on the future of Germany / unconditional surrender / Poland / Eastern Europe YALTA (Churchill ) (Roosevelt) YALTA (Churchill ) (Roosevelt) POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee) POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee) What was agreed at each? What was agreed at each?

6 YALTA (Churchill ) (Roosevelt) Feb 1945 Red Army occupied most of Europe Red Army occupied most of Europe Germany to be divided into ‘zones’ Germany to be divided into ‘zones’ Poland back to 1921 borders (Curzon / Oder- Neisse Line) Poland back to 1921 borders (Curzon / Oder- Neisse Line) United Nations United Nations Declaration for a liberated Europe Declaration for a liberated Europe POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee) POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee)

7 POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee) (July 1945) POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee) (July 1945) POTSDAM (Truman) (Atlee) (July 1945) Truman ‘get tough’ Truman ‘get tough’ Germany had surrendered in May 1945 Germany had surrendered in May 1945 Atomic bomb tested the day after the start of the conference Atomic bomb tested the day after the start of the conference Zones of occupation Zones of occupation

8 ‘Salami’ Tactics USSR’s takeover of political control of Eastern Europe ‘ like slicing off salami piece by piece’ USSR’s takeover of political control of Eastern Europe ‘ like slicing off salami piece by piece’ Soviet ‘supervision’ of governments in E Europe Soviet ‘supervision’ of governments in E Europe Political parties ‘sliced off’ Political parties ‘sliced off’ Communist core remains- local Communist parties replaced by Moscow trained Communists Communist core remains- local Communist parties replaced by Moscow trained Communists

9 STEP 2 Kennan’s Long Telegram Kennan’s Long Telegram Soviet view of the world was one of insecurity Soviet view of the world was one of insecurity Soviet path was one of Stalinism rather than Marxism Soviet path was one of Stalinism rather than Marxism Cruelty and repression of the Soviet system Cruelty and repression of the Soviet system ‘Impervious to the logic of reason Moscow is highly sensitive to the logic of force’ ‘Impervious to the logic of reason Moscow is highly sensitive to the logic of force’

10 Step 3- The Iron Curtain Speech

11 Step 4- The Truman Doctrine

12 Step 5- The Marshall Plan

13 Step 6- Red Army Occupation of Europe 45-47

14 Step 7 Czechoslovakian Coup

15 Step 8- The Berlin Crisis of 1948

16 Who was responsible for the Cold War?

17 Orthodox View- ‘Soviets to blame’ Orthodox View- ‘Soviets to blame’ Revisionist View – US ‘Dollar Diplomacy’ Revisionist View – US ‘Dollar Diplomacy’ Post Revisionist View- Misperceptions on both sides- ‘action and reaction’ –both sides ‘improvising’ Post Revisionist View- Misperceptions on both sides- ‘action and reaction’ –both sides ‘improvising’ Soviet View Soviet View Balance of Power v Ideology Balance of Power v Ideology

18 Key events 1945, Yalta & Potsdam conferences 1945, Yalta & Potsdam conferences Soviet expansion in E. Europe Soviet expansion in E. Europe 1946, Iron Curtain 1946, Iron Curtain 1947, Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan 1947, Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan 1949, NATO 1949, NATO 1955, Warsaw Pact 1955, Warsaw Pact 1961, Berlin Wall 1961, Berlin Wall 1962, Cuban Missile Crisis 1962, Cuban Missile Crisis Cuban Missile Crisis Berlin Wall – last days


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