2What is Cold War?cold war: a state of political hostility between countries characterized by threats, propaganda, and other measures short of open warfareThe Cold War: conflict between the Unites States and the Soviet Union in which neither nation directly confronted the other on the battlefield
3Origins of the Cold WarAmerican and Soviet soldiers meet at the Elbe River in GermanySymbol of peace?After World War II, the United States and the Soviet Union emerged as rival superpowers
4The Soviet Union Led by Joseph Stalin (“man of steel”) Totalitarian government with no opposition partiesCommunist economic system: state controls all property and economic activity
5The United States Harry S. Truman was president (1945-1953) Democratic government with free elections and competing partiesCapitalist economic system: private property & mostly private economic activity
6Former Allies ClashBoth the U.S. and the Soviet Union had been part of the Allies against the Axis Powers during WWIIBut there were tensions between the two nations even thenThey only grew more tense after the War
7Soviet Distrust of the West The Soviet Union felt it had good cause to distrust the west.
81. Western Opposition to Bolsheviks In 1919, Russia’s former World War I allies (Britain, France and the United States) joined the "White Russians" to fight off the Bolsheviks following the revolution.
92. The Result: USSR Suspicious of West This intervention failed and the Red Army of the Bolsheviks secured the power of the new Soviet state. The young USSR government never quite trusted the western democracies after that.
103. Disregard for Soviet Diplomatic Goals The western democracies did not invite the Soviet Union to participate in the World War I peace talks or the League of Nations.
115. USSR Not Invited to Munich Conference The west did not invite the Soviets to the Munich Conference which decided the fate of Czechoslovakia in the years leading up to World War II, even though the Soviet Union had a security pact with Czechoslovakia.
12Western Delay in Opening 2nd Front Stalin believed that the western allies were dragging their feet in opening up the "second front" in Europe, so necessary to take the pressure off the struggling Soviet forces in the east.
13Western Distrust of the Soviets The west, for its part, never trusted the Soviet Union.
141. Fear of CommunismThe avowed purpose of the International Communist Party was to secure world wide communist revolution. There was a great fear of communism in Europe and America.
152. Soviet alliance with Nazi Germany The Soviets negotiated an agreement with Hitler and annexed eastern Poland.Nazi-Soviet Non-aggression Pact of 1939Distrust of Stalin’s motives and intentions
163. Soviet Designs on Eastern Europe Stalin was open about wanting "friendly governments" in Eastern Europe to protect his country's western frontier
17Soviet Desire for Friendly Gov’ts All of this was in the air when Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt met at the end of World War II.
18The Yalta ConferenceThe physical structure of the Cold War world was put into place at the end of World War II.Winston Churchill, Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin agreed in February of 1945 at Yalta to divide Germany into four occupation zones.
19The Yalta Conference (cont’d) It was agreed that the Soviet Union would have the greatest influence in eastern Europe, where Soviet troops were concentrated.They already occupied Poland, Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and parts of Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, and it would have been difficult to come to an agreement which involved removing these troops.Roosevelt agreed because he had little choice.
20The Yalta Conference (cont’d) Finally, it was agreed that independent governments would be established in these lands, and that elections would be free, but the governments would be "friendly to the Soviet Union."
22The Potsdam Conference When the allies met again at Potsdam in July of 1945, relations were more strained.Roosevelt had been replaced by Truman, who knowing the U.S. had the atomic bomb now, was not inclined to humor StalinAmerica no longer desperately needed Soviet help in the war against Japan.The Soviet Union had no intention of allowing free elections in Eastern EuropeThe Soviet Union wanted a cushion of friendly nations around it to prevent future attacksU.S. wanted free markets worldwide
24Soviets Tighten Grip on Eastern Europe The Soviets wanted a “buffer” of friendly, communist states to prevent future invasions from the westCommunist governments installed in: Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and PolandSatellite nations
30Communism spreading?The Red Army of the Soviets HAD helped liberate Europe from fascismThe capitalist economies of the European countries were disintegrating after WWIIColonies around the world were in rebellionEver-present tension between rich and poor
31How does one contain communism? As a student of history and political advisor, what would you suggest?
32The Truman DoctrineTruman Doctrine: “support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”
33Truman Doctrine (cont’d) “I believe that our help should be primarily through economic and financial aid, which is essential to economic stability and orderly political processes." –Truman$400 million in aid given to Turkey and Greece between 1947 and 1950
34The Marshall Plan Western Europe was in shambles after WWII In 1947, Secretary of State George Marshall proposed that the U.S. give aid to all European nations that needed it“not against any country or doctrine but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” – Marshall
35Marshall Plan (cont’d) Over a course of 4 years, 16 countries received some 13 billion dollars in aidBy 1952, Western Europe was flourishingThe Communist party had lost much of its appeal to voters
36Struggle over GermanyGermany had been divided into four occupations zones at the end of WWII
37Berlin Berlin had also been divided among the four Allies Berlin was located completely within the Russian-occupied Eastern side of Germany
38Unification of Western Zones Britain, France, and the United States unified the western zones of Berlin into one nation in 1948October 1949: German Democratic Republic(East Germany)May 1949: Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany)
39Berlin Blockade Stalin responded by attempting to hold all of Berlin He cut off rail and road access to west BerlinResidents of the city had only enough food for about 5 weeks
40Berlin AirliftStarting June 1948 the Americans and the British flew food and supplies into West Berlin to break the blockadeWest Berlin survived the blockadeBoost to American prestigeSoviets lifted blockade in May 1949
41North Atlantic Treaty Organization NATO members: U.S.A., Canada, Great Britain, France, Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, Netherlands, Turkey, Greece, Portugal, West GermanyNATO: defensive military allianceFear of Soviet aggressionPledged support to each other in case of attackNo more isolationism for the U.S.