Presentation on theme: "Cold War Intro, Map, Docs and Korea. Origins of the Cold War Ideological Differences Communism vs. Capitalism Totalitarian vs. Democracy WWII 2 nd Front."— Presentation transcript:
Origins of the Cold War Ideological Differences Communism vs. Capitalism Totalitarian vs. Democracy WWII 2 nd Front Yalta A- Bomb Destruction of Europe Power Vacuum End of Colonial Empires Fear/ Security/ Distrust Previous lessons
Cold War Characteristics Indirect warfare* of 2 Superpowers –Worldwide Alliance Systems Lasts 45 years –1945-1991 –High and low periods of tension –Experience of living through the Cold War Tactics Eco. Pressure Propaganda (even in pop culture) Subversion Nuclear Intimidation *Not complete absence of war
Comrades: T.S. Analyze Document from more than one Point of View
One fundamental US assumption: USSR seeks to expand and therefore poses a threat to the US. Truman Doctrine Aid to Greece & Turkey / US Global Policeman Marshall Plan Rebuilding Germany Eco. Aid/ Military Presence Telegram by Kennan “X” Containment NSC-68 Military Build-up
Alliance System Warsaw Pact (1955)- Military alliance of the Eastern European Soviet Bloc. Organized against the perceived threat from NATO. NATO (1949 ) - If the Soviet Union attacked any European allies, it would be an attack on the US itself. First US peacetime military alliance
Intro Cold War Map Activity Directions:Directions: Shade your Map: –NATO countries –Warsaw Pact countries Locate Berlin Answer the questions and consider the following: –What did the Western Powers and the USSR do with Germany after the War? Why? –What is the significance of the position of Berlin?
The Arms Race How did the Arms Race contribute to the Cold War? 1949 Russians Explode A-Bomb
Massive retaliation Massive retaliation, also known as a massive response or massive deterrence, is a military doctrine and nuclear strategy in which a state commits itself to retaliate in much greater force in the event of an attack “more bang for the buck” – nuclear arsenal may be cheaper and more effective Sec of State Dulles – Eisenhower years
brinkmanship Brinkmanship is the practice of pushing dangerous events to the verge of—or to the brink of—disaster in order to achieve the most advantageous outcome. It occurs in international politics, foreign policy, labor relations, and (in contemporary settings) military strategy involving the threatened use of nuclear weapons
MAD Mutual assured destruction, or mutually assured destruction (MAD), is a doctrine of military strategy and national security policy in which a full-scale use of high-yield weapons of mass destruction by two opposing sides would effectively result in the complete, utter and irrevocable annihilation of both the attacker and the defender, becoming thus a war that has no victory nor any armistice but only effective reciprocal destruction
Questions Who was more responsible for the Cold War? Whose actions and motivations were more justified? Explain. Was the Cold War avoidable? Explain. How has the history of the Cold War changed? Why did this happen? Were there any benefits that resulted from the Cold War? Negative effects?
Japan and China Japan MacArthur in charge Mutual Security Treaty 1952 US defense Japanese Eco. Miracle China Falls to Mao Zedong Truman ‘lost’ China Chang Kai Shek (Jiang Jeshi) and Nationalists to Taiwan 1949
Korean War 1950-1953 Thinking Skill: State implications and consequences Objective: Examine how the Korean War was a result of heightened tensions AND resulted in further heightening of Cold War tensions
Korean War 1950-1953 http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/05/maps/ Containment Challenge in Pacific
Who Lost China? Chiang Kai-shek (nationalists) and Mao Zedong (communists) continued civil war post-WWII Chiang Kai-shek’s forces fled to Taiwan in 1949
Divided Korea Following WWII, Korea was divided along the 38 th parallel US backed the South (Republic of Korea) USSR backed the North (People’s Democratic Republic of Korea) June 25, 1950 N. Korean troops invaded the South
Containment Truman “Korea is the Greece of the Far East” Stop the communists from spreading –Truman’s “get tough” attitude- no appeasement –Considered it similar to Hitler’s invasion of European nations in 30s Prevent a future World War Domestic - Show the Reps the Dems are not “soft”
Korean Involvement WHY? Truman “Korea is the Greece of the Far East” Stop Reds from spreading Show Dems are not “soft” HOW? UN sanction for a “police action” * No congressional approval * No declaration of war (limited war) US were ½ of troops, S. Korea 40%
UN Involvement Truman secures UN sanction for a “police action” against aggressors No congressional approval, no declaration of war US made up 50% of troops, S. Korea 40%
Wanted to bomb N. Korea and China Suggested using A-Bombs Pushed line too close to China China warned of invasion, counter-attacked MacArthur’s public criticisms –“In war, there is no substitute for victory” –Publicly criticized Truman Result: Truman pulled MacArthur from Korea
March 1951 – 1953 In 1953, Eisenhower became president. The Americans threatened to use the atomic bomb if China did not stop fighting. The Chinese agree to a truce, which was signed on 27 July 1953. It is estimated that 10 million people died in the war - as many as died in the First World War.
Effects… Reinforced Containment as a global policy NSC-68’s recommendations are followed Reaffirmed the belief/perception that orders are being disseminated from the USSR to China, then to nations in Europe and Asia. Established a separation of the Korean peninsula
Effects - 54, 000 American troops killed -100, 000 wounded and missing -Public Opinion hurt Truman -Eisenhower Elected to end stalemate Significance: Expanded power of President* - Cold War & Asia - 38 th parallel - Nuclear Threat today -Defense spending/budget Forgotten War
Two Koreas Today DataSouth KoreaNorth Korea Population48.46 million23.78 million GDP ($US, PPP)$1.335 trillion$40 billion GDP per capita$24,840$1,800 estimate Life expectancy7967 Mortality rate, under 5 (per 1000 live births) 555 Internet users (per 1000 people) 75.90 (but this is changing as of 2013) Avg. Male height5’ 8 ½”5’ 4 ½” Avg. Female height5’ 3”5’ 1” Note: Prior to division, Koreans were same size, today 9 year olds in NK are often mistaken for 5 year olds, NK had to eliminate 5’3” height requirement for military b/c many soldiers are less than 5 foot tall today
Discussion Questions Why is Korea called “the forgotten war?” How did Truman’s interpretation of events impact his decision to intervene in Korea? How did changing objectives in the Korean War confuse and complicate the situation? To what extent did MacArthur have the right to criticize Truman? Was the Korean War effort a success? What problems remain today?
Documentaries – Korean War http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzMGZ X9eJ1Uhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzMGZ X9eJ1U http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoOEM RKgi8Yhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SoOEM RKgi8Y