The Early Cold War: 1947-1970 The Early Cold War: 1947-1970
Part I: “Reconstruction & Confrontation” Part I: “Reconstruction & Confrontation”
1918?? – US fails to recognize Bolshevik regime and the USSR April 12, 1945?? FDR dies – Stalin had immense respect for FDR which did not carry through to Truman 1946?? – Kennan Telegram – urging the US gov’t to recognize the evil’s of Stalin’s regime
Creating a National Security State, 1945-1949 Alliance between Soviet Union and the United States was not based on collaboration, but on cooperative defeat of Axis powers –America sent troops to help anti-communist during RR –Did not recognize Soviet government until 1933 Relations between the two countries descended into suspicion and growing tensions (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
The Ideological Struggle Soviet & Eastern Bloc Nations [“Iron Curtain”] US & the Western Democracies GOAL spread world- wide Communism GOAL “Containment” of Communism & the eventual collapse of the Communist world. [George Kennan] METHODOLOGIES: Espionage [KGB vs. CIA] Arms Race [nuclear escalation] Ideological Competition for the minds and hearts of Third World peoples [Communist govt. & command economy vs. democratic govt. & capitalist economy] “proxy wars” Bi-Polarization of Europe [NATO vs. Warsaw Pact]
Onset of the Cold War Interpretations of Cold War’s origins –Traditional: Soviet expansion and desire to spread Communism –Revisionists: U.S. threatened Soviets into the Cold War –Rival interests made Cold War inevitable Harry S. Truman Joseph Stalin Potsdam Conference (1945) 1 ST MEETING OF Truman and Stalin Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe “National security” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved
AMERICAN GOALS – ECONOMICALLY AND POLITICALLY OPEN WORLD – PROVIDES MARKETS FOR PRODUCTS SOVIET GOALS- REBUILD TO PROTECT ITS OWN INTERESTS ESTABLISH SATELLITE NATIONS COUNTRIES SUBJECT TO SOVIET DOMINATION AND FRIENDLY TO SOVIET GOALS “COLLECTIVE SECURITY”
THE SUN SETS ON EASTERN FREEDOM POLAND BECOMES COMMUNIST ELIMINATES ALL OPPOSITION ALBANIA (1945) AND BULGARIA(1948) FORCED INTO COMMUNISM CZECHOSLOVAKIA, HUNGARY, ROMANIA ARE NEXT EAST GERMANY FOLLOWS FINLAND AND YUGOSLAVIA GAIN A MEASURE OF FREEDOM FROM THE SOVIET UNION BUT, ARE STILL COMMUNIST
The “Iron Curtain” From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
Truman Doctrine  1.Civil 1.Civil War in Greece. 2.Turkey 2.Turkey under pressure from the USSR for concessions in the Dardanelles. 3.The 3.The U. S. should support free peoples throughout the world who were resisting takeovers by armed minorities or outside pressures…We must assist free peoples to work out their own destinies in their own way. 4.The 4.The U.S. gave Greece & Turkey $400 million in aid.
US PLANS TO CONTAIN COMMUNISM TRUMAN DOCTRINE MARSHALL PLAN Policy of Containment GEORGE KENNAN Domino theory
CONTAINMENT TO STOP THE DOMINO’S CONTAINMENT THE IDEA OF LIMITING COMMUNISM TO THE PLACES IT ALREADY EXISTS –DEVELOPED BY AMERICAN GEORGE KENNAN –BELIEVED THAT COMMUNISM WOULD EVENTUALLY DESTROY ITSELF.
Marshall Plan  1.“European Recovery Program.” 2.Secretary of State, George Marshall 3.The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos. 4.$12.5 billion of US aid to Western Europe extended to Eastern Europe & USSR, [but this was rejected]. Domino Theory believe that if left uncheck that communism would spread quickly containment was a part of the policy to prevent this.
The Arms Race: A “Missile Gap?” }The Soviet Union exploded its first A-bomb in 1949. }Now there were two nuclear superpowers!
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) United States Belgium Britain Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1983: Spain
NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization ANZUS – Australia, New Zealand and US SEATO – South East Asia Treaty Organization
Warsaw Pact (1955) }U. S. S. R. }Albania }Bulgaria }Czechoslovakia }East Germany }Hungary }Poland }Rumania
Premier Nikita Khrushchev About the capitalist states, it doesn't depend on you whether we (Soviet Union) exist. If you don't like us, don't accept our invitations, and don't invite us to come to see you. Whether you like it our not, history is on our side. We will bury you. you. -- 1956 De-Stalinization Program
An Historic Irony: Sergei Khrushchev, American Citizen Who buried who?
Mao’s Revolution: 1949 Who lost China? – A 2 nd } Power!
The Korean War: A “Police Action” (1950-1953) Syngman Rhee Kim Il-Sung “Domino Theory”
The Hungarian Uprising: 1956 Imre Nagy, Hungarian Prime Minister }Promised free elections. }This could lead to the end of communist rule in Hungary.
Sputnik I (1957) The Russians have beaten America in space—they have the technological edge!
“Prague Spring” (1968) Former Czech President, Alexander Dubček Communism with a human face!
“Prague Spring” Dashed! Dissidents/playwrights arrested [like Vaclav Havel—future president of a free Czech Republic ].
1969 -- SALT On November 17, the 1st phase of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks began in Helsinki, Finland. The finished agreement, signed in Moscow on May 26, 1972, placed limits on both submarine- launched and intercontinental nuclear missiles.
1972 – Nixon visits China Nixon becomes the first U.S. president to visit China, meeting with Mao Tse-tung on February 21. The two countries issue a communique recognizing their "essential differences" while making it clear that "normalization of relations" was in all nations' best interests. The rapprochement changes the balance of power with the Soviets.
1973 - Vietnam War agreement (Paris Accords) January 27, 1973, the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam and the Viet Cong sign the Paris Peace Treaty, establishing a cease-fire. The United States is allowed to continue providing aid to South Vietnam. Saigon falls in April 1975.
1979 - Afghanistan December 25, 100,000 Soviet troops invaded Afghanistan as communist Babrak Karmal seized control of the government. U.S.-backed Muslim guerrilla fighters waged a costly war against the Soviets for nearly a decade before Soviet troops withdraw in 1988. Afghanistan—the Soviet “Vietnam”
1980 - Solidarity On August 14, Lech Walesa led massive strikes at the Lenin shipyards in Gdansk, Poland. The strikes soon spread to other cities and formed the nucleus of the Solidarity movement. The communist government conceded to worker demands on August 31, and recognized their right to form unions and strike.
1983 - Star Wars March 23, Reagan outlinrd his Strategic Defense Initiative, or "Star Wars," a space-based defensive shield that would use lasers and other advanced technology to destroy attacking missiles far above the Earth's surface. Soviets accuse the U.S of violating the 1972 Antiballistic Missile Treaty. Soviets forced to spend heavily to match the program causing near economic collapse.
1985 - Gorbachev comes to power On March 11, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. Gorbachev ushered in an era of reform. –perestroika Economic reform- restructuring –glasnost –means openness, allowed greater free expression and criticism of Soviet policies
1987 - INF On December 8, 1987, Reagan and Gorbachev signed the Intermediate Range Nuclear Forces Treaty It mandated the removal of more than 2,600 medium-range nuclear missiles from Europe, & eliminated the entire class of Soviet SS-20 and U.S. Cruise and Pershing II missiles.
1989 - Berlin Wall falls Gorbachev renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine, which pledged to use Soviet force to protect its interests in Eastern Europe. On September 10, Hungary opened its border with Austria, allowing East Germans to flee to the West. After massive public demonstrations in East Germany and Eastern Europe, the Berlin Wall fell on November 9.
1990 – German Unification At a September 12 meeting in Moscow, the United States, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and the two Germanys agreed to end Allied occupation rights in Germany. On October 3, East and West Germany united as the Federal Republic of Germany.