Presentation on theme: "The Cold War (1945-1960) Mr. Phipps American History."— Presentation transcript:
The Cold War (1945-1960) Mr. Phipps American History
Main Ideas/Events Potsdam Conference: Post-war meeting during which Stalin and Truman broke their promises Truman Doctrine: Promise to contain Communism by financial and military aid Marshall Plan: Commitment of financial support to war-torn Europe Berlin Blockade/Berlin Airlift: Soviet attempt to strangle Allied occupied Berlin, in Soviet controlled East Germany NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization, a military alliance to combat the spread of Communism Chinese Revolution: Communist Revolution, led by Mao Korean War: United Nations conflict to stop the spread of Communism in the Korean Peninsula Space Race: Soviet/American challenge to launch satellites and ICBMs into space U-2 Incident: American spy plane, shot over Soviet airspace Cuban Revolution: The spread of Communism into the Western Hemisphere
California State Standards 11.7.8. Analyze the effect of massive aid given to Western Europe under the Marshall Plan to rebuild itself after the war and the importance of a rebuilt Europe to the U.S. economy. 11.9.2. Understand the role of military alliances, including NATO and SEATO, in deterring communist aggression and maintaining security during the Cold War. 11.9.3. Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following: –The era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic Communism (e.g., Alger Hiss) and blacklisting –The Truman Doctrine –The Berlin Blockade –The Korean War –The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis –Atomic testing in the American West, the "mutual assured destruction" doctrine, and disarmament policies –The Vietnam War –Latin American policy
Part I: Settling the War The start of the Cold War is rooted in the diplomacy and relationships between Russia and the United States in the final months of World War II. FDR’s untimely death fundamentally changed both: the diplomacy and the relationship.
The Yalta Conference (Feb. ‘45) Big Three meet (FDR, Stalin, and Churchill) for the last time, at the end of the war Goals: –Free elections in Poland –Establish sovereign governments in former Nazi Germany –Divide Germany and Berlin into 4 zones –Write United Nations Charter and create Security Council –Create War Crimes Tribunal for “crimes against humanity”
Collective Hopes Division of Germany and Berlin Germany divided into four zones: British, American, French, and Russian. Berlin also divided into four zones, but stuck in the Russian-controlled part of Germany The United Nations Created as a new, improved League of Nations to govern international affairs to provide collective security to promote international development to further human rights Security Council comprised of 15 members 5 Permanent Members (France, U.K., U.S.A, Russia, and China) 10 Members on two year rotation All 5 permanent members can veto ANY Security Council Resolution
Different Philosophies U.S.S.R. vs. U.S.A. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics Communist Totalitarian Censorship of the Press The United States of America Capitalist Democratic Free Press/Speech Free Market So What? The war time alliance was based on mutual defense against a common enemy. It was necessary. The U.S.A. didn’t trust Stalin because he was allied with Hitler and was a murdering bastard. The U.S.S.R. didn’t trust FDR because we were greedy bastards who only helped the British.
Shifting Expectations Russia expected Reparations A Defensive Buffer U.S expected Free Trade Economic Development Stalin cancels free elections in occupied countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Poland) FDR dies of a cerebral hemorrhage, and V.P. Truman takes over, bringing a new hard-line, no negotiation, style of leadership. By April 15, 1945
The Update: July, 1945 Roosevelt Dead, Hitler Dead Germans surrender--V.E. Day (May 8) Europe faced with overwhelming issues –Reconstruction of cities, factories, and railroads –Refugees and displaced people –Widespread disease, hunger, famine –Shame of widespread genocide (Russia: 12 million; Germany: 6.5 million Jews, and others) –Power vacuum in Germany, Italy, and Eastern Europe Successful war in the Pacific--U.S. attacking Tokyo, near atomic decision
The Potsdam Conference (July, 1945) Truman argued that Germany was essential to the economic development of Europe Stalin argued that Germany should pay reparations Truman learned of the successful atomic test and told Stalin Stalin felt bullied and announced the end to free elections in Soviet occupied Europe
An Iron Curtain Descends (March, 1946) Stalin forced Communist revolutions in Bulgaria, Romania, Czechoslovakia, and Poland Stated that all “satellite” nations must remain loyal to Communist government Churchill, on tour in the U.S., contends that an “iron curtain has descended in Europe”, extinguishing liberty
Part II: The Cold War Heats Up (1946-1949) Following the Potsdam Conference, the Cold War gets more intense, as Stalin takes control of Eastern Europe and the threat of Communism spreads to Greece, Turkey, Iran, and Asia. Truman takes a hard-line approach by sending money, aid, and military support to America’s allies.
The Policy of Containment George Kennan’s “The Long Telegram” (Feb. ‘46) A very long telegram response to the American Ambassador to the Soviet Union Outlined America’s diplomatic position to Russia
The Long Telegram U.S.S.R is fatally insecure U.S.S.R. is completely opposed to Capitalism There is no room for compromise Russian Communism is expansionary: IT WILL SPREAD! Only solution: CONTAIN COMMUNISM -- ANY WAY POSSIBLE
The Iranian Crisis (Mar. ‘46) Soviets take control of Iran –Refuse to withdraw from Iran after WWII –Take over Iranian oilfields –Establish a new Communist government Will result in regional instability –CIA will start a coup in the 70s, install the Shah, resulting in the Iranian Revolution and the elevation of the Ayatollah Khomeini –Deep hatred of the West
Greece and Turkey (Feb. ‘46 - Mar. ‘47) British pull financial and military support out of Greece Results in a civil war between Monarchists and Greek Communists Americans fear spread of Communism through Greece and Turkey, resulting in the loss of the Bosporus Strait
The Truman Doctrine (Mar. ‘47) To prevent spread of Communism in Greece and Turkey Asked Congress for $400 million to help “free people who are resisting subjugation…by an outside power First explicit use of American money to finance anti-Communist efforts
The Marshall Plan (June ‘47) The Goal: –To prevent the spread of Communism in Western Europe, by giving over $12.5 billion to help rebuild post-war Europe –To buy the loyalty of Western European governments –To show American commitment to combat Communism
The Unification of Germany Western Allies unify Germany into West Germany –American Zone, French Zone, and British Zone combine to unify against Soviet East Germany Allies combine their zones of Berlin, as an outpost in Soviet occupied E. Germany
The Berlin Blockade (June ‘48 - May ‘49) Threatened by the Allied coalition Resenting the outpost of Capitalism in E. Germany Russians blockade the city of Berlin –Close all railroads –Stop all planes and close airports –Close all roads –Prevent all trade and traffic into West Berlin
The Berlin Airlift (June ‘48 - May ‘49) Truman takes action: –Authorized deployment of atomic bombs to British bases…just in case –Ordered air drop of over 2 million tons of food, medicine, and fuel to W. Berliners –Ended after 11 month standoff, when Stalin ended blockade –Symbolized America’s commitment to a new Europe –Crystallized aggression between Soviets and U.S.
NATO Formed (Apr. ‘49) The North Atlantic Treaty Organization: The Sword and the Shield –To protect American and her allies in Europe from Soviet hostility –Approved mutual defense treaty, to use military to combat Communism –Originally 12 members –Prompted the creation of the Warsaw Pact, a Soviet military alliance
The Update Truman Doctrine: Truman pushes the use of money to prevent the spread of Communism (Marshall Plan, Berlin Airlift) Communism spreading to Greece, Turkey, and Iran Eastern Europe closed to the West
Part III: Asia Goes Red (1949 - 1953) Communism spreads through Asia, as Mao begins a successful revolution in China, and then funnels money and troops to Korea.
The Chinese Revolution Long struggle between Nationalist Chiang Kai- Shek and Communist Mao Zedong Started in the 1920s and continued through WWII Created a brief armistice to fight the Japanese U.S. contributed over $2 billion to Nationalist forces, which squandered the money
The Fall of China (Aug. ‘49) U.S. stops aid to China Chiang Kai-Shek flees to island of Formosa to establish the Republic of Taiwan Mao takes over Beijing and declares the People’s Republic of China in Oct. Mao signs an alliance with Soviet Russia, 1950
The American Response U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. vetoes admission of Communist China to U.N. Only allowed seated members from Taiwan U.S. steps up financial aid to Japan -- to prevent the expansion of China
The Korean War (June, ‘50 - present) Background Americans and Russians entered Korean Peninsula at end of WW2 to disarm Japanese Both sides left troops and munitions Both sides professed desire for Korean unification Korea tentatively divided along 38th Parallel –North--Soviet control –South--American control
Hostilities Flare Communist N. Koreans cross 38th Parallel and nearly take city of Pusan, June 1950 Truman issues NSC-68 (National Security Council Memo #68) –Increase military spending to combat Communism –Mobilize 3.3 million troops –Create Cold War military preparedness (which would continue through –Saves the declining post-WW2 military
The United Nations Intervenes Truman calls United Nations to action (cites mistakes of the League of Nations) Argues for aggressive containment of Communism MacArthur given command of UN forces
The Military See-saw September 1950 MacArthur orders invasion of Inchon UN forces push N. Koreans back to Yalu River, on the border of China China responds by sending “volunteer” soldiers to help
MacArthur Fired (April 1951) Truman refused to fully engage military –The U.S. and public had lost appetite for war atrocities –Truman also fighting Communism at home, with espionage trials and HUAC hearings MacArthur argued for use of atomic weapons, and publicly criticized the president’s strategy Truman accepted MacArthur’s resignation
The Armistice Signed After MacArthur is replaced, UN forces push N. Koreans to the 38th Parallel War settles down –N. Koreans supplied by China, U.S.S.R. –S. Koreans supplied by U.S. Peace talks begin in the fall of 1951, but will last nearly two years Cease fire signed July 1953, still existent
Part IV: The Eisenhower Years (1952-1960) The Eisenhower presidency is noted for its massive military buildup, the constant threat of nuclear retaliation, and the idea that constant nuclear preparedness would result in peace.
A New Look Dwight David Eisenhower Won a landslide victory for Republican Party in 1952 Professional soldier, general of Normandy Invasion Liberator of Europe Trusted by the American people and Western allies
Massive Retaliation The U.S. couldn’t afford small wars: Use Nukes! –Needed to flex its nuclear muscle –Needed to decrease conventional military spending on standing armies –Increased nuclear arsenal from 1,000 to 18,000 warheads –Created Strategic Air Command (SAC), super- bombers equipped with atomic bombs
The Space Race U.S. develops Intercontinental Ballistic Missile program (ICBMs) –Ability to launch long-range missiles, monitored by series of satellites –Russia tests atomic bomb in 1949 –U.S. responds by creating Hydrogen Bomb (equal to 10 million tons of TNT, 1000x more powerful than A-Bomb) –Russia beats U.S. to space, launches Sputnik, Oct. 1957 –Ike forms National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to create space technology
Brinksmanship Brinksmanship: –The threat of full scale nuclear war, as a national foreign policy Korean Armistice (1953): –Forced prisoner exchange and N. Korea to sign armistice Taiwan (1954): –Communist China threatens to take Nationalist Chinese Taiwan, U.S. threatens nuclear retaliation Suez Crisis (1956): –U.S. threatens to use nukes after Communist Egyptian faction takes over Canal, but loses foothold in Middle East Guatemala –CIA trains Guatemala nationalists to combat Soviet Communists, in order to protect United Farm Co.
The Hungarian Uprising Background –New Soviet Premier, Nikita Khrushchev, seemed more tolerant of America June 1956 –Riots against Soviet rule start throughout Eastern Europe, notably in Hungary –Soviets crushed the rebellion –U.S. ignored Hungarian pleas for help
The U-2 Incident (1960) Khrushchev vows to “bury Capitalism,” pounds shoe on podium U.S., NATO, and U.S.S.R. meet to discuss problems in Berlin, diffuse tension –During summit meeting, American spy plane is shot down in Soviet airspace –U.S. said it was a lost weather plane –Soviets, correctly, said it was a spy plane –Derailed summit
Cuba Goes Red (1959) Increased resentment toward U.S. for not supplying financial aid to Latin America Claimed racism toward Hispanics Increased dependence on American exports devastated local economies
The Cuban Revolution Fidel Castro and Che Guevara denounces everything American –Values –Culture –Imperialism Overthrows existing government led by Fulgencio Batista
Communism in Cuba Castro begins redistribution of land, Robin Hood style –Takes land from rich American, or American financed, sugar planters –Collectivizes agriculture –Removes all traces of American culture and capitalism –Would remain major adversary in Western Hemisphere
Castro and Khrushchev Khrushchev promises full financial and military support to Cuba Promises to send nuclear missiles to protect Cuba against American imperialism Will ultimately result in the Cuban Missile Crisis
The Election of 1960 Eisenhower leaves office having –Mobilized a full nuclear arsenal Created ICBMs Highways to move nuclear arsenal SAC Massive retaliation –Ignored pleas for help from Hungary –Allowed Communism to spread in Korea Space Hungary Cuba