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Slide 1. Slide 2 The Korean War Major Rascon Slide 3 Rules of Engagement Ask Questions if you need clarification Ask Questions if you need clarification.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1. Slide 2 The Korean War Major Rascon Slide 3 Rules of Engagement Ask Questions if you need clarification Ask Questions if you need clarification."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Slide 2 The Korean War Major Rascon

3 Slide 3 Rules of Engagement Ask Questions if you need clarification Ask Questions if you need clarification –Raise your hand and wait to be acknowledged There will be additional time for questions at the end There will be additional time for questions at the end The class will be taught utilizing... The class will be taught utilizing... –Lecture Method –PowerPoint –Video –Guest lecturer (Capt Rascon) on the role of aircraft

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6 Slide 6 Prelude to War WWII ended just 5 years earlier WWII ended just 5 years earlier –N and S Korea split by US and Russia Americans didn’t want another war - Isolationists Americans didn’t want another war - Isolationists Began to downsize the military Began to downsize the military –Budget cut from $82 billion in 1945 to $13 billion –Total forces cut from 12 million men and women in 1945 to 1.6 million US has adopted a policy of containment US has adopted a policy of containment

7 Slide 7 Cont. The UN was in it’s infancy The UN was in it’s infancy There was constant small-scale fighting at the 38 th Parallel There was constant small-scale fighting at the 38 th Parallel –No one thought that the war was actually beginning when it did. January 1950 – Sec. of State Dean Acheson states that the Western Defense perimeter stops short of South Korea January 1950 – Sec. of State Dean Acheson states that the Western Defense perimeter stops short of South Korea

8 Slide 8 Korea – “The Land of the Morning Calm”

9 Slide 9 The Invasion Begins June 25 – Early morning – N. Korean begins invasion of S. Korea. June 25 – Early morning – N. Korean begins invasion of S. Korea. –NK hopes to force reunification as one Communist nation –The UN calls for an end to N. Korean Aggression June 27 – UN calls an emergency meeting of the security council and asks members to aid S. Korea June 27 – UN calls an emergency meeting of the security council and asks members to aid S. Korea June 28 th -29 th – Seoul is captured June 28 th -29 th – Seoul is captured June 30 – Pres Truman orders ground forces into Korea and authorizes the bombing of N. Korea June 30 – Pres Truman orders ground forces into Korea and authorizes the bombing of N. Korea

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12 Slide 12 Cont. July 1 – 1 st US Army infantry unit arrives in Korea July 1 – 1 st US Army infantry unit arrives in Korea –1 st Bn, 21 st Infantry Reg, 24 th Infantry Div, & Battery A of 52 nd Field Arty Bn –Comprise Task force Smith July 4 th – Task Force Smith moves into position just north of Osan July 4 th – Task Force Smith moves into position just north of Osan July 5 th – Task Force Smith encounters the N. Koreans – retreat with heavy causalities July 5 th – Task Force Smith encounters the N. Koreans – retreat with heavy causalities July 7 th – UN creates United Nations Command July 7 th – UN creates United Nations Command

13 Slide 13 NK Advance Continues July 15, 1950 – Gen MacArthur is appointed by the UN to Command in Korea July 15, 1950 – Gen MacArthur is appointed by the UN to Command in Korea Truman respects MacArthur’s military skills, but feels he is a loose cannon. Truman respects MacArthur’s military skills, but feels he is a loose cannon. July 19, President Truman addresses the American people on the situation in Korea. July 19, President Truman addresses the American people on the situation in Korea. Early Aug 1950 – US & UN forces seem powerless to stop the NK advances Early Aug 1950 – US & UN forces seem powerless to stop the NK advances

14 Slide 14 Pusan Perimeter The UN forces had begun retreating – trying to delay the N. Koreans as best they could The UN forces had begun retreating – trying to delay the N. Koreans as best they could July 29 th – Gen Walker orders no more retreats when they reached the Naktong River. They were told to hold their positions or die in them. July 29 th – Gen Walker orders no more retreats when they reached the Naktong River. They were told to hold their positions or die in them. Aug 4 th – Pusan Perimeter is established Aug 4 th – Pusan Perimeter is established Aug 5 th -19 th – Battle of Naktong Bulge Aug 5 th -19 th – Battle of Naktong Bulge Aug 25 th – N. Koreans begin to pull back Aug 25 th – N. Koreans begin to pull back

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17 Slide 17 The Tide Changes MacArthur realizes we need a dramatic plan in order to achieve victory MacArthur realizes we need a dramatic plan in order to achieve victory Proposes a landing at Inchon to the JCS Proposes a landing at Inchon to the JCS –Even MacArthur admits that an Inchon landing is a “5000 to 1 risk.” –Denied several times – too risky –MacArthur’s persistence pays off – 22 July JCS grant a Marine division to conduct the landing

18 Slide 18 Inchon Landing “I can almost hear the ticking of the second hand of destiny. We must act now or we will die.... We shall land at Inchon, and I shall crush them!” – Gen MacArthur “I can almost hear the ticking of the second hand of destiny. We must act now or we will die.... We shall land at Inchon, and I shall crush them!” – Gen MacArthur Sept 15 – Inchon Landing Sept 15 – Inchon Landing –First hit Wolmi-do (Green beach) at 0633 and secure it in less than 90 Minutes – Little resistance –13 Hours later – Land at Red and Blue Beach –Who’s in charge at Blue Beach? Chesty PullerChesty Puller Sept 16 – Inchon is controlled by UN forces Sept 16 – Inchon is controlled by UN forces

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20 Slide 20 Second Phase Sept 16 – Gen Walker’s men begin to breakout of the Pusan Perimeter with the Army’s 7 th Calvary leading the fight north Sept 16 – Gen Walker’s men begin to breakout of the Pusan Perimeter with the Army’s 7 th Calvary leading the fight north –The plan is to meet the 7 th Division on their way south Close in on Seoul Close in on Seoul –Battle becomes what the Marines expected at Inchon –3 days before the SK flag is raised over Seoul

21 Slide 21 Sept 29, 1950 In a ceremony held in Seoul, Gen MacArthur returns the capital to Pres Syngman Rhee and the SK government. MacArthur is now certain of victory.

22 Slide 22 Chinese Involvement Chairman Mao Tse Tung is watching American forces closely Chairman Mao Tse Tung is watching American forces closely He has 500,000 troops waiting in Manchuria for the arrival of American Forces He has 500,000 troops waiting in Manchuria for the arrival of American Forces As the NKPA is pushed back across the 38 th parallel, Washington gives MacArthur permission to cross the parallel As the NKPA is pushed back across the 38 th parallel, Washington gives MacArthur permission to cross the parallel –Stop at any sign of Russian or Chinese intervention –DO NOT cross or even fire in the direction of the Yalu River

23 Slide 23 Cont. American Troops begin to feel that the war is almost over

24 Slide 24 Air Introduction Air Introduction Air Support played a big role in the success that America was now seeing Air Support played a big role in the success that America was now seeing

25 Slide 25 The Air War in Korea -Airfields at the initial push south were scarce. -Pusan (2) -Tageu (1) -Length of the Airfields to sustain operations were inadequate. -Japan Airbases (pros and cons) -Mig Alley

26 Slide 26 Aviation Innovation Introduction of “vertical envelopment”. Introduction of “vertical envelopment”. –Marines use rotary wing a/c extensively for troop lift, resupply and medevac. Over 10k medevac missions greatly improve survival rate.Over 10k medevac missions greatly improve survival rate. Marines continue to develop Close Air Support (CAS) procedures. Marines continue to develop Close Air Support (CAS) procedures. –Aviators assigned to ground units to act as Forward Air Controllers (FAC). –CAS is decisive as only supporting arm for most of Chosin campaign. First jet vs. jet combat. First jet vs. jet combat.

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28 Slide 28 Meeting at Wake Pres. Truman is getting nervous and summons MacArthur to Wake Island For a Face-to-Face. Pres. Truman is getting nervous and summons MacArthur to Wake Island For a Face-to-Face. MacArthur is upset that he is interrupted and has to leave during his campaign. MacArthur is upset that he is interrupted and has to leave during his campaign.

29 Slide 29 Wake Cont. Truman Concerned about the possibility of Chinese intervention Truman Concerned about the possibility of Chinese intervention –MacArthur’s arrogance abounds MacArthur claims that the war will be over by Thanksgiving and the men will be home by Christmas MacArthur claims that the war will be over by Thanksgiving and the men will be home by Christmas

30 Slide 30 China Attacks Oct 15, 1950 – Mao sends in 1 st wave of troops Oct 15, 1950 – Mao sends in 1 st wave of troops Despite what he is hearing, MacArthur believes that it is nothing more than a handful of Chinese volunteers, not Army regulars Despite what he is hearing, MacArthur believes that it is nothing more than a handful of Chinese volunteers, not Army regulars “In order to hook a big fish, you must let the fish taste your bait.” – Chairman Mao Tse Tung “In order to hook a big fish, you must let the fish taste your bait.” – Chairman Mao Tse Tung MacArthur orders his men north MacArthur orders his men north

31 Slide 31 Cont. 8 th Army and X corps advance to Yalu River 8 th Army and X corps advance to Yalu River MacArthur sure China would not dare retaliate MacArthur sure China would not dare retaliate Winter sets in – significance? Winter sets in – significance? Mao orders ¼ million troops into N. Korea Mao orders ¼ million troops into N. Korea “Lure the enemy forces into our internal line; wipe them out one by one.” “Lure the enemy forces into our internal line; wipe them out one by one.” –Mao’s Military Tactician Marshal Peng Duhuai

32 Slide 32 The Frozen Chosin Nov 25, 1950 – Peaceful Thanksgiving Nov 25, 1950 – Peaceful Thanksgiving –Chinese sneak troops right past US intelligence Nov 27 – X corps marches into the Chosin Reservoir where 100,000 Chinese troops are waiting for them Nov 27 – X corps marches into the Chosin Reservoir where 100,000 Chinese troops are waiting for them –At Chosin: 10,000 Marines and 2,500 Army Army worse off than Marines Army worse off than Marines –Little food & ammo, NO water –Most Air Dropped supplies land on Chinese side

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34 Slide 34 Cont. Retreat hell! We’re just attacking in another direction” – MGen Smith

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36 Slide 36Cont.

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39 Slide 39 Withdrawal Completed Last troops and refugees evacuated by Christmas Eve Last troops and refugees evacuated by Christmas Eve Bombs, dynamite, and gasoline too volatile to transport are detonated on the beach as they pull out. Bombs, dynamite, and gasoline too volatile to transport are detonated on the beach as they pull out. 8 th Army Withdraws from Yalu River straight down to the 38 th Parallel 8 th Army Withdraws from Yalu River straight down to the 38 th Parallel

40 Slide 40 Further Devastation All UN forces now south of the 38 th Parallel All UN forces now south of the 38 th Parallel American forces now faced with total and humiliating defeat American forces now faced with total and humiliating defeat –Once again in this war the tables are turned MacArthur wants to use as many as 50 atomic bombs against the Chinese MacArthur wants to use as many as 50 atomic bombs against the Chinese –US supporters against the idea –Nov 30 – At a press conference, Truman says we may use Atomic weapons

41 Slide 41 Cont. Mao not intimidated Mao not intimidated –“You can use the atomic bomb. I will use my hand grenade. I will catch your weak point and defeat you.” Seoul & Inchon fall back under communist control Seoul & Inchon fall back under communist control –As UN forces evac. They blow up the Inchon harbor

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43 Slide 43 Turn yet again Dec 23 – Gen Walker dies Dec 23 – Gen Walker dies Gen Matthew “Bunker” Ridgeway, his replacement, revives the fighting spirit of the 8 th Army Gen Matthew “Bunker” Ridgeway, his replacement, revives the fighting spirit of the 8 th Army –“Get off the roads and hit them where they hide!” –“Throw all those maps away, we’re going to attack!” Now it is Mao who overextends his forces Now it is Mao who overextends his forces

44 Slide 44 March 1951 Ridgeway successfully counter-attacking Ridgeway successfully counter-attacking Truman now favors limited war Truman now favors limited war MacArthur says that all out war is needed for victory, and pursues it despite warnings from the President himself MacArthur says that all out war is needed for victory, and pursues it despite warnings from the President himself Truman becomes infuriated with MacArthur Truman becomes infuriated with MacArthur Truman relieves MacArthur Truman relieves MacArthur –“It is with the deepest personal regret that I have found myself compelled to take this action. General MacArthur is one of our greatest military commanders, but the cause of world peace is much more important than any individual.”

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46 Slide 46 Cont. Chinese return as heroes Chinese return as heroes Americans return to an uninterested nation Americans return to an uninterested nation A truce was declared in 1953, but no peace treaty was ever signed ending the war between North and South Korea A truce was declared in 1953, but no peace treaty was ever signed ending the war between North and South Korea

47 Slide 47 Peace? June 25 th, 1951 – News circulates of Chinese offer for peace talks June 25 th, 1951 – News circulates of Chinese offer for peace talks It is 2 yrs before Armistice It is 2 yrs before Armistice –During which 12,000 more Americans lose their lives Main bone of contention = POW’s Main bone of contention = POW’s –March 1953 – Stalin dies –Op Little Switch –Op Big Switch (Aug)

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49 Slide 49 W or L? Ended almost as it began Ended almost as it began –territorially But our involvement was to remove the N. Koreans from S. Korea But our involvement was to remove the N. Koreans from S. Korea –did that Almost really two different conflicts Almost really two different conflicts –complicated to name a winner

50 Slide 50 Conclusion > 5 million people die in Korea from > 5 million people die in Korea from America – 54,000 KIA America – 54,000 KIA Chinese – 148,000 KIA Chinese – 148,000 KIA Remainder – N & S Korean troops and civilians Remainder – N & S Korean troops and civilians Main Lesson Learned – If you go to war, go to win. Main Lesson Learned – If you go to war, go to win. –Vietnam will serve to reinforce that point

51 Slide 51 Summary NK push to the Pusan Perimeter NK push to the Pusan Perimeter American landing at Inchon and breakout from Pusan that lead to our conquest American landing at Inchon and breakout from Pusan that lead to our conquest The role of Aircraft The role of Aircraft Chinese involvement and conquest Chinese involvement and conquest American Pushback American Pushback Armistice and results Armistice and results And the intertwined Politics along the way And the intertwined Politics along the way

52 Slide 52Questions?


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