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© 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. NATION OF NATIONS, SIXTH EDITION DAVIDSON DELAY HEYRMAN LYTLE STOFF (modified for APUSH – Lmotry)

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1 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. NATION OF NATIONS, SIXTH EDITION DAVIDSON DELAY HEYRMAN LYTLE STOFF (modified for APUSH – Lmotry) Chapter 27: Cold War America

2 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Rise of the Cold War Cracks in the Alliance Cracks in the Alliance –What were Soviet ambitions? –To deal with menace and disorder, Harry Truman sought to frame a policy The View from West and East The View from West and East –Roots of the cold war –Munich analogy 2

3 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Toward Containment Toward Containment –George Kennan’s long telegram –“Containment”: provided Washington with a framework for analyzing Soviet behavior The Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine –The Iranian crisis –Aid to Greece and Turkey –Doctrine marked a new level of American commitment to a cold war 3

4 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan –Truman Doctrine did not address Western Europe –Communism in Hungary and Czechoslovakia The Fall of Eastern Europe The Fall of Eastern Europe –Berlin Blockade/Airlift –NATO formed (1949) –Israel recognized becomes a state “By 1947 anticommunism had become the dominant theme in American policy, both foreign and domestic.” 4

5 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Cold War Europe 5

6 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Atomic Shield versus the Iron Curtain The Atomic Shield versus the Iron Curtain –The Atomic Energy Commission (1946) –Baruch plan: ensured that the U.S. would dominate any international atomic agency Atomic Deterrence Atomic Deterrence –American military forced to adopt a nuclear strategy –Belief that the Soviets were determined to overthrow the U.S. 6

7 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Postwar Prosperity Postwar Adjustments Postwar Adjustments –Minority workers –American G.I. Forum (1948) –Black veterans and civil rights –Civil rights report: To Secure These Rights (1946) –Organized labor 7

8 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The New Deal Programs Under Attack The New Deal Programs Under Attack –Republicans and Democrats blocked the president’s attempts to revive the New Deal –Taft-Hartley Act (1947) A Welfare Program for GIs A Welfare Program for GIs –The GI Bill (1944) –The bill accelerated trends that would transform America into a prosperous, heavily middle-class suburban nation 8

9 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Election of 1948 The Election of 1948 –Henry Wallace and the progressives –Dixiecrats: Strom Thurmond –Truman fights back The Fair Deal The Fair Deal –Agenda called for vigorous revival of New Deal programs –Truman could not forge a working coalition between farmers and labor 9

10 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Cold War at Home The Shocks of 1949 The Shocks of 1949 –The H-bomb –China falls to Communists –The Hiss case (1949) The Loyalty Crusade The Loyalty Crusade –Loyalty Review Board –Loyalty program gave credibility to the growing red scare 10

11 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 11

12 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. HUAC, Hollywood, and Unions HUAC, Hollywood, and Unions –House Committee on Un-American Activities began to investigate the film industry –Blacklisting –McCarran Act (1950) The Ambitions of Senator McCarthy The Ambitions of Senator McCarthy –McCarthy never substantiated charges –Tapped the fears and hatreds of a broad coalition of Catholic leaders, conservatives, and neo-isolationists “By 1950 anticommunism had created a climate of fear in which legitimate concerns mixed with irrational hysteria.” 12

13 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. From Cold War to Hot War and Back Police Action Police Action –The North Korean invasion –Amphibious attack launched behind North Korean lines The Chinese Intervene The Chinese Intervene –China grew increasingly restive –Truman wondered publicly about using the atomic bomb 13

14 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Korean War 14

15 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. Truman versus MacArthur Truman versus MacArthur –The military stalemate in Korea brought to light the simmering feud between Truman and MacArthur –April 11: a stunned nation learned that MacArthur had been relieved of his duties The Global Implications of the Cold War The Global Implications of the Cold War –Europe, not Asia first –Truman announces he will not run for reelection (1952) 15

16 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. The Election of 1952 The Election of 1952 –Moderates like “Ike” –Nixon’s Checkers Speech –Eisenhower and Korea The Fall of McCarthy The Fall of McCarthy –By the summer of 1953, the senator was on an unrestrained attack –McCarthy versus the army 16

17 © 2007 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved. 17 “Under the new balance of power in the postwar world, the United States and the Soviet Union stood alone as superpowers, with the potential capability to annihilate each other and the rest of the world.”


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