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Wars: Korea and Vietnam The Korean War: 1950-1953.

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Presentation on theme: "Wars: Korea and Vietnam The Korean War: 1950-1953."— Presentation transcript:

1 Wars: Korea and Vietnam The Korean War:

2 38 th Parallel  After WWII – Korea is a divided nation  38 th Parallel divides North: the Japanese surrendered to the Soviets (Com- munist)  South: surrendered to the U.S.

3 Standoff  1949 Most troops from U.S. and Soviet R. were withdrawn  Gamble: Soviets did not think U.S. would defend S. Korea – so they armed the North to take over.

4 Surprise Attack  1950 N. Korea crossed the 38 th Parallel and attacked S. Korea  Pres. Truman was determined to keep S. Korea non-communist  S. Korea sought help from the UN  Soviets were absent in protest – could not veto any votes  15 nations (incl. U.S. and Britain) participated in helping S. Korea

5 Douglas MacArthur  Was in charge  1950 – launched a surprise attack  “Pincer Action” – troops moving north from Pusan (non- communist) met amphibian landing at Inchon.  Half of the North Koreans surrendered – the rest retreated.

6 The Fighting Continues  The UN troops (mainly U.S.) pursued the retreating N. Koreans back to N. Korea to the Chinese border  1950 – the Chinese felt threatened and sent 300,000 troops into N. Korea  They outnumbered the UN troops and drove the U.N. and S. Korean troops out of N. Korea.  Then, they captured the S. Korean capital of Seoul.

7 “We face an entirely new war.” D. MacArthur  MacArthur wanted a nuclear attack against China.  Truman thought this reckless – said no.  MacArthur went to Congress and the press.  Truman removed him.

8 Next Two Years……  UN forces fought to drive the Chinese and N. Koreans back.  1952 – UN troops regain control of S. Korea  1953 – UN forces and N. Korea signed a cease-fire agreement  The border was set again near the 38 th parallel.  4 million soldiers and civilians had died.

9 Aftermath  Korea remained divided; a demilit- arized (no military activity) zone; it still exists  North Korea – Kim Il Sung – communist and established collective farms  He developed heavy industry and built up the military.  Died

10 Next North Korean Leader  Sung’s son, Kim Jong Il, took over.  Developed nuclear weapons – had serious economic problems

11 South Korea  Prospered because of massive aid from U.S. and other countries who were anti-communist  1960s – concentrated on developing industry and foreign trade  1987 – free elections  1980s – 90s: S. Korea had one of the highest econ. growth rates in the world.

12 Today….  North and South Korea still divided over political differences  N. Korea’s possession of nuclear weapons is a major obstacle.  The U.S. still keeps troops in S. Korea

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15 *** You Tube Video 28:24 The Korean War

16 The Vietnam War

17 Vietnam  Stemmed from Cold War ‘Containment’ policy  After WW2, stopping communism was the goal of U.S. foreign policy

18 Ho Chi Minh  Early 1900s – France controlled most of Southeast Asia aka Indochina (now Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia)  Vietnam= resource- rich  Nationalist indepen- dence Movement began  Ho Chi Minh = leader

19 -He turned to Communists for help -1930s: his Indochinese Communist Party led revolts against the French -The French jailed protesters; also sentenced Ho Chi Minh to death -He fled into exile; returned to Vietnam in 1941

20 - Japanese had control of during WW2 -Ho and other nationalists founded the Vietminh (Independence) League – Defeated, the Japanese were forced out of Vietnam, -Ho Chi Minh thought they would have independence -The French wanted to regain Vietnam as its colony

21 The Fighting Begins  Vietnamese Nationalists and Communists joined to fight the French  French held most major cities  Vietminh had widespread countryside support  Vietminh used hit-and-run tactics to confine the French to the cities  1954 – major French defeat at Dien Bien Phu  French surrendered to Ho

22 Domino Theory  Because of the French defeat, U.S. saw a threat to the rest of Asia  President Eisenhower: the SE Asian nations were like a row of dominoes  The fall of one to communism, would lead to the fall of its neighbors

23 This was the major justification for U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War

24 A Divided Country  After Fr. Defeat – international peace conference in Geneva  To discuss the future of Indochina  Vietnam was divided at 17degree north latitude

25 Leaders  North: Ho Chi Minh and Communist forces  South: the U.S. and France set up an anti-Communist govt. under…  Ngo Dinh Diem - he became a dictator

26 Vietcong  Opposition to Diem’s govt. grew  Vietcong: were Communist guerrillas - trained soldiers from N. Vietnam  Most were S. Vietnamese who hated Diem

27  Gradually the Vietcong won control of the large areas of the countryside  1963 – a group of S. Vietnamese generals had Diem assassinated.  New leaders were just as bad as Diem  A takeover by the Communist Vietcong, backed by N. Vietnam was inevitable

28 The U.S. Gets Involved  1964 – Pres. Lyndon Johnson told Congress that two U.S. destroyers were attacked by the N. Vietnamese – Gulf of Tonkin  Congress gave the okay to have U.S. troops go into Vietnam

29  1965 – 185,000 U.S. soldiers were in Vietnam  U.S. planes had begun to bomb N. Vietnam  1968 – more than half a million U.S. soldiers were in combat there.

30 Two Major Problems for the U.S.  U.S. troops were the best equipped and most advan- ced, but…  1. Guerrilla warfare was new to them  Unfamiliar country  2. S. Vietnam (U.S. was fighting for them) was unpopular

31 U.S. Air Power  Unable to win a victory on ground – U.S. used air power  Bombed millions of acres of farmland and forests – to destroy enemy hideouts  This made peasants hate S. Vietnam even more and opposed their government

32 The United States Withdraws  Late 1960s – U.S. citizens protested war – too much loss of life  Pres. Richard Nixon starts withdrawing U.S. troops from Vietnam in 1969

33 Vietnamization  U.S. troops would gradually pull out giving South Vietnam an increased combat role  Nixon authorized a massive bombing campaign against N. Vietnam bases and supply routes  Also authorized bombing of Laos and Cambodia to destroy Vietcong hideouts

34  Because of U.S. protesting, Nixon kept withdrawing U.S. troops  1973 – the last U.S. troops left  Two years later – N. Vietnam overran S. Vietnam  1.5 million Vietnamese died  58,000 Americans died

35 Draft Protests  years of age  366 blue plastic capsules contained the birthdays that would be chosen in the first Vietnam draft lottery drawing on December 1, The first birth date drawn that night, assigned the lowest number, "001," was September 14. (Selective Service Archive)

36 How to avoid being drafted:  Student or medical deferments  Other reasons (hardship)  Volunteered  Fled to Canada

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38 Kent State – May 4, 1970  When Pres. Nixon okayed the inva- sion of Cambodian to destroy Viet- namese Commu- nist bases  U.S. nationwide protest on college campuses  Military was sent to Kent State

39  4 students died  9 wounded  U.S. was shocked

40 **** You Tube Kent State Shooting: 40 years later 3:59

41 Vietnam Memorial – Wash. DC

42 *** L360 U.S. Wars: Vietnam War 28:27

43 Assignment: Draw a Venn diagram and compare and contrast the Korean and Vietnam Wars.


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