238th Parallel After WWII – Korea is a divided nation 38th Parallel divides North: the Japanese surrendered to the Soviets (Com-munist)South: surrendered to the U.S.
3Standoff 1949 Most troops from U.S. and Soviet R. were withdrawn Gamble: Soviets did not think U.S. would defend S. Korea – so they armed the North to take over.
4Surprise Attack1950 N. Korea crossed the 38th Parallel and attacked S. KoreaPres. Truman was determined to keep S. Korea non-communistS. Korea sought help from the UNSoviets were absent in protest – could not veto any votes15 nations (incl. U.S. and Britain) participated in helping S. Korea
5Douglas MacArthur Was in charge 1950 – launched a surprise attack “Pincer Action” – troops moving north from Pusan (non-communist) met amphibian landing at Inchon.Half of the North Koreans surrendered – the rest retreated.
6The Fighting Continues The UN troops (mainly U.S.) pursued the retreating N. Koreans back to N. Korea to the Chinese border1950 – the Chinese felt threatened and sent 300,000 troops into N. KoreaThey outnumbered the UN troops and drove the U.N. and S. Korean troops out of N. Korea.Then, they captured the S. Korean capital of Seoul.
7“We face an entirely new war.” D. MacArthur MacArthur wanted a nuclear attack against China.Truman thought this reckless – said no.MacArthur went to Congress and the press.Truman removed him.
8Next Two Years……UN forces fought to drive the Chinese and N. Koreans back.1952 – UN troops regain control of S. Korea1953 – UN forces and N. Korea signed a cease-fire agreementThe border was set again near the 38th parallel.4 million soldiers and civilians had died.
9AftermathKorea remained divided; a demilit-arized (no military activity) zone; it still existsNorth Korea – Kim Il Sung – communist and established collective farmsHe developed heavy industry and built up the military.Died
10Next North Korean Leader Sung’s son, Kim Jong Il, took over.Developed nuclear weapons – had serious economic problems
11South KoreaProspered because of massive aid from U.S. and other countries who were anti-communist1960s – concentrated on developing industry and foreign trade1987 – free elections1980s – 90s: S. Korea had one of the highest econ. growth rates in the world.
12Today…. North and South Korea still divided over political differences N. Korea’s possession of nuclear weapons is a major obstacle.The U.S. still keeps troops in S. Korea
17Vietnam Stemmed from Cold War ‘Containment’ policy After WW2, stopping communism was the goal of U.S. foreign policy
18Ho Chi MinhEarly 1900s – France controlled most of Southeast Asia aka Indochina (now Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia)Vietnam= resource-richNationalist indepen-dence Movement beganHo Chi Minh = leader
19He turned to Communists for help 1930s: his Indochinese Communist Party led revolts against the FrenchThe French jailed protesters; also sentenced Ho Chi Minh to deathHe fled into exile; returned to Vietnam in 1941
20-Japanese had control of during WW2 -Ho and other nationalists founded the Vietminh (Independence) League-1945 – Defeated, the Japanese were forced out of Vietnam,-Ho Chi Minh thought they would have independence-The French wanted to regain Vietnam as its colony
21The Fighting BeginsVietnamese Nationalists and Communists joined to fight the FrenchFrench held most major citiesVietminh had widespread countryside supportVietminh used hit-and-run tactics to confine the French to the cities1954 – major French defeat at Dien Bien PhuFrench surrendered to Ho
22Domino TheoryBecause of the French defeat, U.S. saw a threat to the rest of AsiaPresident Eisenhower: the SE Asian nations were like a row of dominoesThe fall of one to communism, would lead to the fall of its neighbors
23This was the major justification for U. S This was the major justification for U.S. foreign policy during the Cold War
24A Divided CountryAfter Fr. Defeat – international peace conference in GenevaTo discuss the future of IndochinaVietnam was divided at 17degree north latitude
25Leaders North: Ho Chi Minh and Communist forces South: the U.S. and France set up an anti-Communist govt. under…Ngo Dinh Diem - he became a dictator
26Vietcong Opposition to Diem’s govt. grew Vietcong: were Communist guerrillas - trained soldiers from N. VietnamMost were S. Vietnamese who hated Diem
27Gradually the Vietcong won control of the large areas of the countryside 1963 – a group of S. Vietnamese generals had Diem assassinated.New leaders were just as bad as DiemA takeover by the Communist Vietcong, backed by N. Vietnam was inevitable
28The U.S. Gets Involved1964 – Pres. Lyndon Johnson told Congress that two U.S. destroyers were attacked by the N. Vietnamese – Gulf of TonkinCongress gave the okay to have U.S. troops go into Vietnam
291965 – 185,000 U.S. soldiers were in Vietnam U.S. planes had begun to bomb N. Vietnam1968 – more than half a million U.S. soldiers were in combat there.
30Two Major Problems for the U.S. U.S. troops were the best equipped and most advan-ced, but…1. Guerrilla warfare was new to themUnfamiliar country2. S. Vietnam (U.S. was fighting for them) was unpopular
31U.S. Air Power Unable to win a victory on ground – U.S. used air power Bombed millions of acres of farmland and forests – to destroy enemy hideoutsThis made peasants hate S. Vietnam even more and opposed their government
32The United States Withdraws Late 1960s – U.S. citizens protested war – too much loss of lifePres. Richard Nixon starts withdrawing U.S. troops from Vietnam in 1969
33VietnamizationU.S. troops would gradually pull out giving South Vietnam an increased combat roleNixon authorized a massive bombing campaign against N. Vietnam bases and supply routesAlso authorized bombing of Laos and Cambodia to destroy Vietcong hideouts
34Because of U.S. protesting, Nixon kept withdrawing U.S. troops 1973 – the last U.S. troops leftTwo years later – N. Vietnam overran S. Vietnam1.5 million Vietnamese died58,000 Americans died
35Draft Protests18-26 years of age366 blue plastic capsules contained the birthdays that would be chosen in the first Vietnam draft lottery drawing on December 1, The first birth date drawn that night, assigned the lowest number, "001," was September 14. (Selective Service Archive)
36How to avoid being drafted: Student or medical defermentsOther reasons (hardship)VolunteeredFled to Canada