Presentation on theme: "Foreign Policy Truman to G.W. Bush. Cold War Reasons for tension? –Second-front delay –Soviet desire to protect Western border –Insistence by Western."— Presentation transcript:
Cold War Reasons for tension? –Second-front delay –Soviet desire to protect Western border –Insistence by Western allies on free elections –Soviet military position at Yalta –Atomic bomb
Methods by which CW fought Threats Arms race Espionage Economic and military aid Limited wars Peacetime alliances
U.S. Policy to handle perceived Soviet threat? Containment: Truman –Truman Doctrine –Marshall Plan –NATO –Significance of Election of 1948? Crises –Berlin June 1948-May 1949 National Security Act 1947: Dep. Of Defense, CIA, NSC-68
China Containment less effective in far East Chiang K-ai-shek v. Mao Tse-Tung October 1949—Formosa/Taiwan Korea –June 25, 1950: Syngman Rhee, Kim Il- Sung, UN Security Council, Macarthur, Pusan, Inchon, Yalu, 38 th Parallel/DMZ
Eisenhower “Brinkmanship” End cold war or at least relax tensions abroad, but not at home! –Hydrogen bomb 1952 –Advisor Dulles and “Massive retaliation” Crises –Korea –Covert Operations: Guatemalan Guzman overthrown by CIA in 1954 (Operation PBSUCCESS), Overthrow of anti- Western Mossadeq and replacement of Iran Shah 1953 (Operation Ajax)
Shah Palahvi and his wife, John Foster Dulles, and Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
Eisenhower, cont’d French Indochina: Dien Bien Phu falls, 1954, Geneva Conference 17 th parallel, Ngo Dinh Diem, Viet Cong, Ho Chi Minh Hungarian Revolution 1956 Middle East –Suez Canal, Aswan Dam, role of USSR/Britain/France, Gamal Abdel Nasser, Eisenhower Doctrine
New Hope: Peaceful Coexistence Soviet Leader: Khrushchev, attempts at arms control, Sputnik Khrushchev’s visit U2 Incident
Eisenhower Doctrine: U.S. will use force ANYWHERE in the Middle East against “aggression from any country controlled by international communism.” (Really just reiterated CONTAINMENT POLICY.)
Kennedy: Flexible Response Tactics: ICBMs, conventional weapons, special forces: $6 Billion jump in spending OAS, Alliance for Progress, Peace Corps Crises –Berlin August 1961 –Bay of Pigs April 1961 –Missile Crisis October 1962: arms race escalation –Vietnam
Operation Babylift: April 1975 Plane crash The first military evacuation flight, a C-5A Galaxy cargo plane loaded with over 300 crew, children and adult escorts, experienced an "explosive rapid decompression" about 40 miles (64 km) outside Saigon when the rear ramp and pressure door blew out through the rear of the aircraft (due to a lock failure) and was forced to return to Tan Son Nhut with no flight controls to the tail, and only limited roll control.explosive rapid decompression The plane could not reach the airport; but instead crash-landed, at about 270 knots (500 km/h), two miles (3 km) away into a field of flooded rice paddies, killing 138 people, including 127 of the orphans. However, over half of the passengers survived the crash. Most of the infants and adults in the upper deck areas survived. Those in the lower decks, including most of the adult "chaperones", "non-essential" members of the Defence Attache's Office (mainly administrative staff), did not. News of the plane crash brought widespread attention and sympathy toward the operation and the evacuees in the U.S. and other nations.
Nixon: Detente Abandoning Cold War as an ideological struggle, view it as traditional great power rivalry which can be managed/controlled Use trade/technology to induce cooperation
Nixon Policy Implementation China Card 1971 SALT I (ABMs, ICBMs freeze) Vietnam Truce 1973 Yom Kippur War Oct 1973 –US tried to take more neutral stance –Uneasy truce –OPEC action
Ford Fallout of Vietnam –War Powers Act: President must consult with Congress before troops sent –Saigon’s fall April 30, 1975, U.S.S. Mayaguez incident, Khmer Rouge (Cambodia) and Pol Pot –Helsinki Accords: pledging support for HUMAN RIGHTS (U.S.S.R. signs, but later says in private, “it’s just a piece of paper…”)
Carter: Troubled Policy Maintain détente Human rights policy –Boat people –Cuban refugees –Soviet dissidents Latin America –Gradual Panamanian responsibility for operation of Canal –Nicaragua: 1979 Somoza, Sandinistas: some economic aid –El Salvador: military assistance
Carter and Middle East Camp David Accords 1978: Anwar Sadat, Menachim Begin, Gradual return of Sinai, No role for PLO Iranian Revolution 1979: 1978 Reza Shah Pahlavi, Ayatollah Khomeini, Oct 1979 Shah to US, Nov. 4, 1979 Embassy seized, failed rescue, helped Reagan!
Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan USSR’s “Vietnam” Banned technology sales, resumed draft registration, boycotted 1980 Olympics, Withdrawal of SALT II Mujahadeen/Osama bin Laden? CIA
Reagan: “Evil Empire” Terrorism, Lebanon, Nicaragua, Grenada, 1982 Israel withdraws from Sinai but no Jewish settlements in West Bank Latin America: cut aid to Sandinistas, asked Congress for money to help Contras but Congress refused: Covert CIA –Boland Amendment: no U.S. agency could spend money in Latin America –El Salvador: death squads
Reagan’s pressure Defense Build-up: $300B –B1 Bomber, MX missile, New missiles in NATO nations, SDI (“Star Wars”) Gorbechev 1985 –Perestroika, glasnost, freedoms in E. Europe –Pressure on USSR: Star Wars, Berlin Iran-Iraq War 1980-1988: U.S. works with Saddam Hussein
Iran-Contra affair 6 American hostages in Lebanon held by Iranians 1985: Trade military supplies for hostages: sell weapons and divert money to Contras secretly Oliver North takes fall
George H.W. Bush Tiananmen Square Lech Walesa Berlin Wall Boris Yeltsin and fall of U.S.S.R., 10 member CIS START Panama December 1989
Operation Desert Storm August 2, 1990 invasion of Kuwait Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Hussein punishes Shi’ites in south, Kurds in North Why didn’t we get rid of Saddam in 1990?
Foreign Policy of the Clinton Administration Attempts at Peace in the Middle East –Oslo Accords, 1993, Rabin and Arafat –Camp David, 2000, Barak and Arafat Bosnia and Kosovo Operations in Mogadishu, Somalia, October 1993 Failure to act in Rwanda, 1994, Clinton’s “biggest regret as President”
Terrorism on the Rise Failed NYC World Trade Center attacks, 1993 Bombing of the U.S. Embassies in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania, 1998 Bombing of the U.S.S. Cole in Aden, Yemen, October 2000 al-Qaeda, Osama bin Laden
Terrorist threats today? September 11, 2001 Muammar Qaddafi’s involvement in Pan Am Flight 103, 1988 Taliban in Afghanistan Dealing with insurgency
What is the role of the United States today in FOREIGN POLICY? HOW do we DECIDE where to go and where NOT to go?