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Cold War: Thinking the Unthinking. Lesson Objectives Build a foundation for understanding the genesis, issues, and strategies of the Cold War. Understand.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War: Thinking the Unthinking. Lesson Objectives Build a foundation for understanding the genesis, issues, and strategies of the Cold War. Understand."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War: Thinking the Unthinking

2 Lesson Objectives Build a foundation for understanding the genesis, issues, and strategies of the Cold War. Understand the strategy of containment and become familiar with the conflicts and confrontations that resulted. Be able to describe and discuss the concepts of countervalue and counterforce targeting. Begin to understand the concept of deterrence in the Cold War. Understand the impact of the Cold War nuclear standoff on US society.

3 Nuclear Forces & Strategies

4 NSC-68 April 14, 1950 Classified National Security Council document Full analysis of US-USSR relationship Defined initial US Cold War strategy: Containment Implemented the Truman Doctrine Note: Korean War began June 25, 1950

5 Impact of NSC-68 Immediate increase in defense spending Demonstrated American commitment to win the Cold War FY 1950: Defense budget $14.1 billion 33% of national budget, 5% 0f GNP FY 1951: Defense budget $33.6 billion 73% of national budget, 10% 0f GNP Source

6 Impact of NSC-68 Source

7 US Cold War Policy Stem the tide of worldwide Soviet expansionism Insure security of Europe through a strong NATO Prevent global nuclear war through deterrence Emphasis on defense Colonel John Osgood, USA, Retired United States Nuclear Strategy

8 US Cold War Policy Stem the tide of worldwide Soviet expansionism Insure security of Europe through a strong NATO Prevent global nuclear war through deterrence Emphasis on defense Colonel John Osgood, USA, Retired United States Nuclear Strategy

9 Nuclear Targeting Theories Counterforce Countervalue : target warfighting capability : target cities and industry

10 Nuclear Targeting Strategies Truman: Countervalue US had nuclear monopoly, then preeminence Believed nuclear weapons most valuable against cities Colonel John Osgood, USA, Retired United States Nuclear Strategy Eisenhower: Counterforce Soviet nuclear weapons became a concern Massive retaliation was public doctrine Kennedy/Johnson: Flexible Response Public face: assured destruction (countervalue) Counterforce (war fighting) retained as an option

11 Nuclear Targeting Strategies Nixon: Counterforce Publicly promoted position Developed warfighting weapons (MIRV, ABM) Colonel John Osgood, USA, Retired United States Nuclear Strategy Carter: Counterforce Pursued decapitation strategy (targeted C 3, leadership) Regan/Bush: Counterforce Combined counterforce and strategic defense Blended arms negotiations (SALT) with SDI

12 Implementing the Strategy Initially: World War II technology B-29 Superfortress Implosion type A-bombs B-50 Superforress Combat Radius: B ,800 nm B ,050 nm Later: Both required forward basing

13 Strategic Bombers B-36 Peacemaker Max Weight: 410,000 lbs Radius: 3,750 nm w/ 10,000 lbs bomb load

14 Strategic Bombers Comparison of Bombers B-17 B-29 B-36

15 Strategic Bombers B-47 Stratojet Max Weight: 233,000 lbs Radius: 2,050 nm Aerial refueling from KC-97 Takeoff clip LABS* Maneuver Over 2,000 built by Boeing, Douglas, Lockheed * Low Altitude Bombing System

16 Strategic Bombers B-52 Stratofortress Max Weight: 410,000 lbs Radius: 3,750 nm w/ 10,000 lbs bomb load YB-52 prototype (1952) B-52G 744 built B-52H models (delivered 1963) still flying

17 Soviet Bombers Tu-4 Bull Copy of US B-29 Soviet Special Weapon (?) Chinese-operated Tu-4 with turboprop engines and Chinese copy of US AQM-34 Firebee UAV

18 Soviet Bombers Tu-95 Bear Max Weight: 400,000 lbs Radius: 7,600 nm FAS

19 Soviet Bombers M-4 Bison Max Weight: 365,000 lbs. Radius: 2,500 nm

20 Cold War Timeline 9 Sep 48 4 Apr May Aug Jan Feb Apr Jun 50 Stalin declares PDRK legitimate government of all Korea North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established Berlin Blockade lifted Soviet Union detonates first nuclear device Sec State Acheson speech omits Korea as US interest area USSR & PRC sign mutual defense pact NSC-68: Blueprint for containment strategy North Korea (PDRK) invades South Korea (ROK)

21 Cold War Timeline 9 Sep 48 4 Apr May Aug Jan 50 Stalin declares PDRK legitimate government of all Korea North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) established Berlin Blockade lifted Soviet Union detonates first nuclear device Sec State Acheson speech omits Korea as US interest area. 14 Feb Apr Jun 50. USSR & PRC sign mutual defense pact NSC-68: Blueprint for containment strategy North Korea (PDRK) invades South Korea (ROK) 31 Jan 50 Truman announces US intent to develop hydrogen bomb 14 Feb Apr Jun 50 USSR & PRC sign mutual defense pact NSC-68: Blueprint for containment strategy North Korea (PDRK) invades South Korea (ROK)

22 Cold War Timeline 31 Jan 50 Truman announces US intent to develop hydrogen bomb Nuclear War Branch These two events take on new significance when considered together 14 Apr 50 NSC-68: Blueprint for containment strategy

23 Cold War Timeline 31 Jan 50 Truman announces US intent to develop hydrogen bomb Nuclear War Branch Two events drove this decision Soviet detonation of a nuclear device (29 Aug 49) Concerned US might be overtaken in a nuc arms race It is part of my responsibility as Commander in Chief of the Armed forces to see to it that our country is able to defend itself against any possible aggressor. Accordingly, I have directed the AEC to continue its work on all forms of atomic weapons, including the so-called hydrogen or Super bomb. President Harry S. Truman, 31 January 1950 nuclearweaponarchive.org Discovery of a Soviet spy at Los Alamos (Klaus Fuchs)

24 Cold War Timeline 31 Jan 50 Truman announces US intent to develop hydrogen bomb Nuclear War Branch Two events drove this decision Soviet detonation of a nuclear device (29 Aug 49) Concerned US might be overtaken in a nuc arms race It is part of my responsibility as Commander in Chief of the Armed forces to see to it that our country is able to defend itself against any possible aggressor. Accordingly, I have directed the AEC to continue its work on all forms of atomic weapons, including the so-called hydrogen or Super bomb. President Harry S. Truman, 31 January 1950 nuclearweaponarchive.org 14 Apr 50 NSC-68: Blueprint for containment strategy Discovery of a Soviet spy at Los Alamos (Klaus Fuchs)

25 Cold War Timeline 31 Jan 50 Truman announces US intent to develop hydrogen bomb Nuclear War Branch NSC-68 and resulting spending increase largely the result of decision to develop H-bomb 14 Apr 50 NSC-68: Blueprint for containment strategy

26 Cold War Timeline 31 Jan 50 Truman announces US intent to develop hydrogen bomb Nuclear War Branch 14 Apr 50 NSC-68: Blueprint for containment strategy 1 Nov 52 First thermonuclear device detonated, Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands

27 Mike Shot Operation Ivy series November 1, 1952 First hydrogen bomb megatons Fireball Mushroom cloud nuclearweaponarchive.org

28 A-bomb Mechanics Nuclear “Pit”

29 H-bomb Mechanics Physics Package

30 H-bomb Mechanics W53 (9 MT) Physics Package

31 Mike Shot Operation Ivy series November 1, 1952 Video First Thermonuclear (Fusion) Device 10 MT

32 Mike Shot Operation Ivy series November 1, 1952 nuclearweaponarchive.org Elugelab Island, site of “Mike”device Before After

33 Thermonuclear Breakthrough “Mike” test and subsequent work in the next four years led to the development and fielding of significantly smaller, more powerful weapons Mk MT (1955) W MT (1961) Mk 4 RV (re-entry vehicle

34 Nuclear “Progress”

35 Nuclear Weapons Mk MT Mk MT Highest yield US weapon

36 Nuclear Weapons Mk 28 - variable yield 70 KT MT

37 Nuclear Weapons Soviet 100 MT bomb (rear) and 152 mm artillery shell (front)

38 Nuclear Weapons US Nuclear Weapon Designations

39 Ballistic Missiles Go to

40 Ballistic Missiles Terminology SRBM: Short Range Ballistic Missile MRBM: Medium Range Ballistic Missile IRBM: Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile ICBM: Intercontinental Ballistic Missile ( ≤ 1,000 km ) ( 1,000 – 3,000 km ) ( 3,000 – 5,000 km ) ( > 5,000 km ) SLBM: Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile

41 First Ballistic Missiles German V-2 Range ~ 175 nm CEP*: 11 nm * Circular Error Probable

42 Cold War Timeline 31 Jan 50 Truman announces US intent to develop hydrogen bomb Nuclear War Branch 14 Apr 50 1 Nov 52 NSC-68: Blueprint for containment strategy First thermonuclear device detonated, Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands 4 Oct 57 USSR launches first earth satellite, Sputnik

43 Sputnik October 4, 1957 R-7 / SS-6 Sapwood ICBM

44 Early Earth Satellites October 4, 1957 March 17, 1958 January 31, 1958

45 Early Missiles Sputnik Explorer

46 Deployed U.S. Missiles Jupiter MRBM Deployed to Italy & Turkey Range ~ 1,500 nm CEP: 0.6 nm Thor IRBM Deployed to the UK

47 U.S. ICBMs Titan I Titan II Minuteman Peacekeeper Atlas

48 ICBM Minuteman with MIRV

49 Nuclear Triad Manned Bombers ICBM SLBM Can launch on warning Accurate Flexible Vulnerable inflight Slow Quick response Invulnerable inflight Accurate Economical Vulnerable to first strike Survivable Quick response Invulnerable inflight Unpredictable Expensive system

50 SAC (c 1950) Nuclear Forces Cassette 42: Modern Marvels

51 Fighting a Nuclear War Issues : Warfighting Strategy

52 Nuclear Targeting Strategies Nixon: Counterforce Publicly promoted position Developed warfighting weapons (MIRV, ABM) Colonel John Osgood, USA, Retired United States Nuclear Strategy Carter: Counterforce Pursued decapitation strategy (targeted leadership, C 3 ) Regan/Bush: Counterforce Combined counterforce and strategic defense initiative (SDI) Blended arms negotiations (SALT) with SDI

53 Fighting a Nuclear War Issues : Warfighting Strategy Second Strike Capability  Retaliatory forces must be able to ride out a first strike and still respond with decisive force  Survivability becomes key consideration

54 Sea-Based Deterrent Ohio-class SSBN

55 Fighting a Nuclear War Issues : Warfighting Strategy Second Strike Capability Continuity of Government

56 Objective:Maintain post-attack constitutional government

57 Undisclosed Locations Video

58 Airborne Command Post E-4B Provide continuity for the National Command Authority

59 Looking Glass EC-135 Looking Glass

60 Fighting a Nuclear War Issues : Warfighting Strategy Second Strike Capability Continuity of Government War Plan

61 SIOP Single Integrated Operational Plan

62 SIOP: Single Integrated Operational Plan "The Circle of Modern War" and logo © Thomas D. Pilsch

63 Cold War: Defending the Homeland Go To Air Defense & Civil Defense

64 The Threat 1950’s on: Manned Bombers 1960’s on: Ballistic Missiles Land-based ICBM’s initially SLBM’s* added later * Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile

65 Defense Options Deter the Threat: Defeat the Threat: Mitigate the Threat: Effective, secure nuclear forces Active Defenses (aircraft, missiles) Passive Defenses (civil defense, dispersal, continuity of government)

66 Active Defense 288 site in 30 states San Francisco SAM sites Each missile had a nuclear warhead  Variable yield: 2 – 40 KT

67 Civil Defense Living With the Bomb

68 Survival Under Atomic Attack (1950) ( 9:00) Civil Defense Information

69 Civil Defense January 12, 1962

70 Civil Defense

71 “Duck and cover!”

72 Civil Defense Video (9:16)Updated

73 Civil Defense

74 Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis

75 Vietnam: Into the Abyss

76 Lesson Objectives Understand the Vietnam War as part of the Cold War. Be able to describe the evolution of U.S. policy toward Indochina from Presidents Roosevelt to Eisenhower. Understand and describe the challenges posed by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) against the south. Understand and describe the situation in the Republic of Vietnam (RVN) after 1959 and the RVN reaction to the challenge from the north. Understand the doctrine of limited war and counterinsurgency as espoused by the Kennedy Administration. Understand the timeline of events that led to U.S. involvement in Southeast Asia.

77 End


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