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Chapter 28 THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America Past and Present.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 28 THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America Past and Present."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 28 THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America Past and Present

2 The Cold War Begins: Issues Dividing US & USSR Control of Postwar Europe – Fundamental disagreement Economic Aid – Soviet economy devastated Nuclear Disarmament – Overshadowed all else p.810

3 The Division of Europe 1945 ~ Russians occupied eastern Europe, American troops occupied western Europe ~ Germany was the key Soviet Union sought eastern European buffer US demanded national self-determination through free elections throughout Europe Stalin converted eastern Europe into a system of satellite nations – Lowered the “Iron Curtain” from the Baltic to the Adriatic ~ Churchill’s term – One by one, communist regimes replaced coalition govts in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria p

4 Europe after World War II p.811

5 Germany 1945 NIB

6 Withholding Economic Aid Soviets devastated by World War II – 15 to 20M lives lost – 30k factories destroyed – 40k mi of railroad track destroyed Wartime ambassador, Averell Harriman, “Economic aid is one of our most effective weapons” 1945 ~ United States halted Lend- Lease shipments to the Soviets Soviets moved factories from captured territories p

7 The Atomic Dilemma 1943 ~ Nuclear race between US & USSR 1946 ~ Bernard Baruch Plan – Rapid reduction of US military force – Baruch Plan presented to the UN favored US atomic monopoly – Would have preserved the status quo Soviet Union – Larger conventional army than US – Ambassador Andrei Gromyko presented plan to abolish atomic weapons Favored the Soviets No agreements = Cold War p

8 Containment 1947 ~ George C. Marshall appointed Secretary of State – Appointed talented subordinates Undersecretary Dean Acheson – Experienced Wash lawyer – Wanted to see US take over as supreme arbiter of world affairs George Kennan headed newly created Policy Planning Staff – Soviet expert – Fluent in Russian They set the course for containment p.813

9 The Truman Doctrine 1947 ~ Truman sought funds to keep Greece, Turkey in Western sphere of influence Truman Doctrine ~ “Support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or outside pressure” Doctrine an informal declaration of cold war against the Soviet Union p

10 The Marshall Plan If US could not solve Western Europe’s economic problems, it was feared that it would drift into the communist orbit 1947 ~ George Marshall proposed aid for rebuilding European industries – A massive infusion of American capital to finance the economic recovery of Europe (Soviets included) USSR refused aid ~ Didn’t want to lose control of Eastern Europe 1948 ~ Marshall Plan adopted by Congress Plan fostered western European prosperity p

11 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948–1952 p.815 Massive infusion of US capital

12 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948–1952 p.815 Massive infusion of US capital

13 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948–1952 p.815 Massive infusion of US capital

14 The Western Military Alliance 1949 ~ North Atlantic Treaty Organization – Military alliance included US, Canada, most of western Europe – US troops stationed in Europe – Represented a departure from traditional American isolationism NATO intensified USSR's fear of the West p

15 The Berlin Blockade June 1948 ~ The main Soviet response to the US containment strategy was the blockade of Berlin – Cut off all rail & highway traffic Truman ordered airlift to supply the city – 10k troops & 2M civilians in Berlin – Soviets could have shot down cargo planes – Sent 60 atomic capable B-29s in England 1949 ~ Russians end blockade Tremendous US political victory p

16 The Cold War Expands 1947 ~ US vs. Soviet arms race accelerated The Superpowers sought to expand their influence in the Far East p.817

17 The Military Dimension 1947 ~ National Security Act – Department of Defense established Army – Navy – Air Force (new) – Central Intelligence Agency coordinated intelligence-gathering – National Security Council advised president Defense budget devoted to air power 1949 ~ First Russian atomic bomb exploded, US began hydrogen bomb development (1000x) p

18 The Cold War in Asia 1945 ~ US consolidates hold on Japan, & former Japanese possessions in Pacific 1949 ~ Victory of Mao Tse-tung’s Communists over Chaing Kai-shek’s Nationals brings China into Soviet orbit Truman refused recognition of Communist China & began building up Japan p

19 The Korean War June 1950 ~ Communist North Korean forces, following Kim il-Sung (backed by China backed by the Soviets), invaded US- influenced South Korea Truman made South Korea’s defense a UN effort & sent in US troops – US routed Korean forces in South – Attempt to unify Korea drew in China – With help from China, US pushed back to South & war became a stalemate Most significant result ~ Massive American rearmament – US Army expanded to 3.5M p Kim Jong-il

20 The Korean War, 1950–1953 p.820 Most significant result ~ Massive American rearmament

21 The Cold War at Home Truman tried to carry on the New Deal reform tradition he had inherited from FDR, but American people more concerned about events abroad Fears of Communist subversion Republicans used anticommunism to revive their party p.824

22 Truman's Troubles Prices rose quickly following WWII when Congress ended wartime controls – Workers lost pay due to loss of overtime Labor unrest swept the country culminating in critical strikes – Truman asked Congress for power to draft striking railway workers into the Army Businesses raised wages, but passed the cost on to consumers 1946 ~ Republicans won majority in both houses of Congress – “To err is Truman” & “Had enough?” p.824

23 Truman Vindicated 1948 election ~ Truman thought unelectable – Northern liberals supported Henry Wallace’s Progressive candidacy – Southern Democrats supported “Dixiecrat” Strom Thurmond (anti-civil rights, racist) – Republican Thomas Dewey was overconfident & ran bland campaign, failed to challenge Truman on Cold War because of the Berlin Crisis – Roosevelt coalition reelected Truman on domestic issues p

24 p

25 The Loyalty Issue Growing paranoia over communist spies – Canadians uncovered Soviet spy ring in 1946 – US House Un-American Activities Committee held hearings regarding agents in the Depts of Agriculture & Treasury Truman was compelled to take action & initiated a loyalty program – Required security checks; 1000s of govt workers lost their jobs on suspicion Most famous disclosure in US govt came when Whittaker Chambers (a repentant communist) accused Alger Hiss, a former State Dept official, of having been a Soviet spy during the 1930s p

26 The Loyalty Issue Chambers led investigators to a hollowed- out pumpkin on his Maryland farm in which were found microfilms of govt documents – Chambers claimed Hiss had passed them to him in the late 1930s Statute of limitations had passed, so Hiss escaped treason charges, but was convicted of perjury in 1950 & sentenced to a 5 yr prison sentence p ’53-’56

27 Klaus Fuchs Julius & Ethel Rosenberg Soviets tested their first atomic bomb in Sep 1949 – Soviet espionage was very real In early 1950, Klaus Fuchs (fled Germany in the ’30s), a British scientist who had worked on the Manhattan Project admitted passing A-bomb information to the Soviets – Sentenced to 14 yrs 1951 ~ Jury found Julius & Ethel Rosenberg guilty of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets – Electrocuted in 1953 p.827

28 McCarthyism in Action 1950s ~ Senator Joseph McCarthy launched a 4½ yr anticommunist campaign ~ the Red Scare – Accused 100s of govt officials of being communists – Kept up a continuous onslaught, truth was lost among the latest blasts – He failed to unearth a single confirmed communist in govt He exploited the press/media w/ great skill His accusations contributed heavily to the Republican victory in 1952 p

29 The Republicans in Power 1952 ~ Eisenhower captures White House for Republican Party July 1953 ~ Stalemate accepted in Korea Eisenhower dealt passively with McCarthy – Refused to directly attack him – “I refuse to get into a p***ing contest with a skunk” 1954 ~ Attack on Army discredited McCarthy who is then censured – Career ruined – “Have you no decency, sir?” p

30 The Election of 1952 p.829 Had promised to bring the Korean War to an early & honorable end

31 Eisenhower Wages the Cold War Eisenhower prefers to work behind-the scenes Eisenhower wanted to relax tensions with Soviets – Concerned about defense budget (went >$50B under Truman) – Cut back Army & Navy & relied on Air Force nuclear striking power, brought budget <$40B Eisenhower’s “new look” policy relied on massive retaliation to deter Soviet attacks p

32 Entanglement in Indochina Since 1950, US had been providing military & economic aid to the French in their war w/ communist guerrillas led by Ho Chi Minh – French were surrounded at Dien Bien Phu – Ike did not provide assistance, French defeated Viet Nam divided between North & South at an international convention in Geneva – Ho would control the North & the French the South US gradually took over from the French & established a puppet govt – Concerned about spread of communism, but didn’t want to fight them in the jungle p

33 Containing China Believing the communist govt in Peking posed a serious threat, Ike took a strong stance against against China – The object was to drive a wedge between China & the USSR Chinese threaten to invade Formosa, an island group off their coast where Chaing Kai-shek’s Nationalists had settled – US spted these “Nationalists,” & China backed down when Soviets would not help p.832

34 Turmoil in the Middle East 1956 ~ Egyptian leader Gamal Nasser seized the Suez Canal – Problem: Owned by English & French citizens France & England invaded Egypt – Ike was opposed, wanted a diplomatic soln – Soviets announced they would spt Egypt Ike’s most serious foreign policy crisis – Gained Middle East trust by pressuring English & French withdrawal 1958 ~ Lebanon asked for US help to maintain order ~ Another “Cold War” arena – Political problems between Christians & Muslims – Peace maintained p

35 Covert Actions Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) used to achieve covert objectives Iran ~ CIA restored the Shah to power – American oil companies rewarded w/ lucrative concessions – A country on Soviet border Guatemala ~ CIA ousts leftist govt Eastern Europe ~ Refused to help 1953 East German protesters or 1956 Hungarian freedom fighters Ike used a mixture of techniques (diplomacy, threats, covert). He seemed to believe that the ends justify the means p.833

36 Waging Peace Nuclear test ban treaty – US & USSR agreed to suspend nuclear testing in the atmosphere – Ike wanted “Open skies” ~ Nikita Khrushchev (followed Stalin) did not agree October 1957 ~ Russians launched Sputnik May 1960, U-2 Crisis ~ Soviets shot down spy plane ~ Peace talks cancelled p “We will bury you”

37 The Continuing Cold War Jan 1961 ~ Eisenhower warned against growing military-industrial complex Post-war era marked by Cold War rather than peace & tranquility p.835

38 Chapter 28 THE ONSET OF THE COLD WAR America Past and Present End


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