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KC 8.1 Part I & KC 8.2 Part I Mr. Buttell APUSH.

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Presentation on theme: "KC 8.1 Part I & KC 8.2 Part I Mr. Buttell APUSH."— Presentation transcript:

1 KC 8.1 Part I & KC 8.2 Part I Mr. Buttell APUSH

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3 TRUMAN DOCTRINE  CONTAINMENT!  George Kennan  Dominated American foreign policy for 40 years  March 12, 1947 – Truman speech to Congress  Protect nations from subjugation of communist nations  Pledged American support for fight against communism – police force  US gave Greece and Turkey $400 million

4 “DOMINO EFFECT”  Communism expanded anywhere could be a threat to democracy everywhere  Secretary of State Dean Acheson

5 MARSHALL PLAN  W. Europe in chaos after WWII battles  June Sec. Of State George Marshall proposed the US should help fund and rebuild nations in need  Motives: humanitarian, fear, economic drain, economic opportunity  Spent $13 billion in aid

6 MOBILIZATION AT HOME  American military power kept at war-time levels  Atomic Energy Commission (1946) – created to oversee all nuclear research  National Security Act (1947)  Revamped entire defense bureaucracy  Created  Department of Defense  National Security Council (NSC)  Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)  Expanded powers of executive branch to pursue internat’l goals w/o a declaration of war

7 BERLIN AIRLIFT  US, France, GB, unite their half of Germany  SU occupy E. Germany and E. Berlin  June, Stalin closed off W. Berlin (occupied by US, F. GB)  Civilians didn’t have supplies to live  US flew supplies into W. Berlin – lasted more than 10 months  Stalin eventually lifted the blockade

8 NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION  April 4 th, 1949 – accelerated by situation in Berlin  NATO  12 countries pledged military support to one another  Political and military alliance  US scared of conflict but no longer isolated from the world

9 WARSAW PACT  Reaction to NATO – 1955  Mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe  Established at the USSR’s initiative

10 POLITICS OF THE TRUMAN YEARS  1946 – Republicans took over both houses of Congress  Election of 1948  Democratic divided  Conservative Southerners created States’ Rights Party aka Dixiecrats  Strom Thurmond, Gov. of SC  Left wing Democrats created new Progressive Party  Henry Wallace  Moderate Democrats reluctantly support  Harry S. Truman  Republicans re-nominated Thomas E. Dewey of NY  Campaign:  Dewey subdued  Truman active and aggressive (“Fair Deal”)

11 POST WWII AMERICA  Economic anxiety – fear from post WWI America  Prices rose; consumer demand rose; tax cuts  Minorities forced out of industrial work  GI Bill of Rights (Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944)  Union strikes – United Mine Workers and RR shutdowns  Republican controlled Congress passed Taft-Hartley Act (1947) aimed at weakening Wagner Act  Outlawed closed shop; allowed union shops; created right-to-work laws

12 ELECTION OF 1948

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14 1949 – A TUMULTUOUS YEAR  SU announced explosion of first successful atomic weapon  Created arms race  Collapse of Chiang Kai-shek’s nationalist gov’t  Necessitated a change in American Cold War policy  Establish strong anti-communist leaders  Expand military budget  Military Industrial Complex

15 CHINA PROBLEM  Chiang Kai-Shek  Nationalist  US supported  S and E China  Weak support  Fled to Taiwan (Formosa)  Mao Zedong  Communist  SU supported  N China  Peasants support (more appealing)  People’s Republic of China Moved our Sphere of Influence to Japan

16 KOREAN WAR  First military engagement of the Cold War  Japan occupied Korea until WWII  SU took N  US took S  38th Parallel divides Korea  Northern Government Communist - Kim Il Sung  Southern Government Democratic - Syngman Rhee  American foreign policy dictated by NSC- 68 – intervention using force for liberation  Aim: create “a unified, independent and democratic Korea”

17 KOREAN WAR  June 1950, N invaded S  UN and US troops commanded by Gen. Douglas MacArthur  China joined on side of NK  Back and forth battles b/t Mac led forces and Chinese divisions  Truman sought negotiations w/ China since they entered – Mac wanted to attack China  Martin letter – Mac wrote letter voicing opposition to Truman’s policies – became public  April 1951 – Truman fired Mac for insubordination

18 KOREAN WAR ENDS  Truman lost popularity after firing MacArthur  Negotiations began in stalemate until 1953 officially ends  150,000 Americans dead or wounded; 4 million Asians  Intensified anxiety over communism  Contributed to second major campaign of the century against domestic communism

19 COMMUNIST HYSTERIA  Fear of internal communist subversion  Causes:  Communism an actual threat  Korea and China  Soviet development of bomb  Republican party blame Democrats  Communist conspiracy w/i US borders  HUAC – House Un-American Activities Committee  Hollywood blacklists – “the Hollywood Ten”  Alger Hiss (1948) – State dept. member accused of leaking classified information to SU

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21 COMMUNIST HYSTERIA  Truman admin created employee loyalty programs (1947)  Head of the FBI J. Edgar Hoover  McCarran Internal Security Act (1950) – all Communist org must register w/ gov and publish their records  Rosenberg case – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, accused of masterminding leaking secret info to Soviets  Sentenced to death April 1951 by Judge Kaufman – electrocuted in June 1953  ALL factors led to fear of communist subversion or being suspected of communism

22 MCCARTHYISM  Joseph McCarthy – freshman Senator (WI)  “Hold in my hand” – launched him as the nation’s most prominent crusader against domestic subversion  Head of a Senate subcommittee to conduct investigations  NEVER produced solid evidence, BUT ruined careers and reputations  Launched America into 2 nd Red Scare

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26 ELECTION OF 1952  Communist hysteria, middle of Korean War stalemate, Dem have dominated since 1932  DEMOCRATS  Truman’s popularity vanished; withdrew from race  Gov. Adlai E. Stevenson (IL)  Witty, well-liked, dignified  REPUBLICANS…revival  Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower  War hero, Commander of NATO, President of Columbia University  Running mate – Richard M. Nixon (CA)  “Checker’s Speech”  Won the White House and both houses of Congress

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