21945- A Critical YearUS and Soviet Union were Allies as a temporary arrangement during WWII.At the Yalta Conference- Feb. 1945: Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to discuss the arrangements of Germany and Poland Post WWII including free elections.Churchill and FDR rejected Stalin’s demand that Germany pay 10 billion in war damagesDisputes over Poland causedstress on US & Soviet relations
3The United NationsThe United Nations was a new international peacekeeping organization.League of Nations failed because the United States refused to joinUN stated they were going to try and stop wars from starting, end the ones that broke out, and settle differences peacefullyMembers included; US, SU, GB, China, and France
4Truman takes CommandFDR passed away in April 1945, VP Harry Truman took over as presidentTruman met with Stalin at the Potsdam Conference- July Occupation Zones were determined post WWII and Truman mentioned the new Atom Bomb that had just been tested in New Mexico, which instilled fear in Stalin.
5Postwar GoalsUS fought to bring democracy and economic opportunity to the conquered nations of EuropeSoviet Union wanted to rebuild after loosing a tremendous amount of people.
6Soviets Tighten HoldSatellite Nations- countries subject to Soviet domination on their borders.Soviets took over Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and East Germany.Stalin installed communist governments in all nations while he slowly took power.
7IRON CURTAIN Winston Churchill gave an “Iron Curtain” Speech. An Iron Curtain laid across the continent dividing communism from capitalism and if nothing was done communism would take over all of Europe. American was called on to helpStalin’s speech and Churchill’s speech set tone for the COLD WAR
8COLD WARCold War- competition that developed between the United States and the Soviet Union for world power.Lasted for over forty years until1991 the collapse of the Soviet Union.Rivalry stopped just short of a hot war between the two nations.
9ContainmentAmerican policy for resisting further expansion of communism around the world (George Keenan, American Diplomat)
10The Truman DoctrineA declaration by president Truman that the United States would support nations that were being threatened by communism.The Truman doctrine is a policy of containment which gave the US power and dominance
11Marshall PlanSecretary of state George Marshall created this plan which called for all European nations to draw up a program of economic recovery from the war and the US would then support the program with financial aid.The plan would help European economic recovery and create strong democracies while opening new markets for American goods.Soviet Union refused to participateMarshall Plan was the turning point in the war!!!Marshall Plan – European Recovery Program
12Molotov Plan1949 Soviet Union plan of economic aide to Eastern Europe. Established a new organization COMECON- Council for Mutual Economics AssistanceNamed after Soviet Union foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov
13Berlin Blockade and Berlin Airlift Stalin was not going to allow the reunification of West Germany, so western allies prepared to mergeSoviets created East GermanyWest=capitalistsEast= CommunistStalin cut off supplies with a BLOCKADE which created severe shortages of food and supplies for 2.5 million peopleBerlin Airlift- Truman moved supplies into West Berlin for 15 months by plane and soviets finally gave up blockade
14NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)-association of the democratic peace-loving states and “an armed attack against one or more of the nations, shall be considered an attack against them all.Canadian Foreign Minister St. Louis St. LaurentCountries include; United States, Canada, Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, and PortugalCollective security- principal of mutual military assistance
15Warsaw PactSoviet Union responded to NATO and created the Warsaw Pact- a military alliance with satellite nations in Eastern Europe
16Communist AdvancesTruman announced that “we have evidence that within recent weeks an atomic explosion occurred in the USSR.”This was scary for the American people they could not imagine the thought of Hiroshima or Nagasaki on American soil.Americans started to make advances in nuclear weapons (hydrogen bomb) which was many times more destructible than the atomic bomb1952 hydrogen bomb tested and declared US the worlds leading nuclear powerPeople were planning how to survive a nuclear attack! (bomb shelters)
18The struggle in China China fell to communism under leadership of Mao ZedongChiang Kai-shek- Leader of Chinese government and the NationalistsMao Zedong- Communist leader in China who overthrew their government1949- US did not aid and China’s capital, Beijing, fell to communist.Chiang and followers withdrew to a small island of China’s mainland, Taiwan and continued practicing democracy as the Republic of China.(There was a fear of China and the SU becoming allies)
19The Cold War at HomeA new Red Scare- many people had joined the communist party but with increasing distrust in Stalin many people quitPeople who had been remotely involved in a communist party were swept up in the wave of persecutionLoyalty Program- Truman headed this program so that all employees hired by the federal government were to be investigated with suspicion of overthrowing the government
20HUACHouse Un-American Activities Committee- investigate disloyalty of Communist infiltration of government agencies and the Hollywood movie industry b/c movies had strong influence of the publicHollywood ten- actors, writers, directors, and producers cited for contempt of congress and were blacklisted where other employers would not hire them.
21McCarran-Walter ActCongress passed 1952 McCarran-Walter Act- which discriminated against potential immigrants from Asia, Southern and central Europe.The President vetoed the bill- stated “one of the most Un- American acts he had ever witnessed”
22Spies A real communist threat in the United States Alger Hiss- high ranking government official convicted of perjury for lying in slander case.Julius and Ethel Rosenberg - (a married couple) were members of the communist party were accused of passing atomic secrets to the soviets. They were convicted of espionage and executed in 1953.
23Korean WarSouth Korea- had a pro-American government formed (US occupied)North Korea- had a Communist regime (USSR occupied)In June 1950 the Korean War broke out when North Korean troops streamed across the 38th parallel- latitude line dividing the two nationsNorth Korea was aiming at unification by force
25Douglas MacArthurAnti-communist general chosen to lead UN forces in Korea by TrumanMacArthur helped establish Japan’s new democratic constitutionSuccessful in implementing democracy in South KoreaDisliked by politicians but loved by the public and military!
26The Cold War 1950’s 1953 Eisenhower became president succeeding Truman Eisenhower had kept his promise to bring the Korean War to an end and the sudden death of Stalin helped the war come to an end in March of 1953.In Southeast Asia a conflict developed in Vietnam (French Colony in SouthEast Asia that had fallen to Japan during WWII)Ho Chi Minh, head of Vietnamese Communist Party declared Vietnam’s Independence after Japan fell in 1945.France rejected Vietnam’s independence and an ugly war began to unfold
27Domino theoryDomino Theory is a belief by Eisenhower which held that if any one country fell to communists, its neighbors soon would follow (like a row of dominos).By 1954 US was providing aid to help with the war
28Vietnam DividedJust like Korea, Vietnam was divided into communist North and Anti Communist south.The US provided aid to South Vietnam but resisted any greater involvement
29The Middle East1930’s anti-Semitism in Germany and Eastern Europe forced Jews to seek safety in Palestine.Arab and Jewish conflict turned to the United nations for the creation for a Jewish state called Israel (1948).
30The Middle East Continued The Suez crisis- Egypt ruler, Nasser, sought soviet support, US and Britain cut off their aid.Nasser seized the British owned Suez canal, a vital waterway for oil to reach EuropeEisenhower Doctrine- the US would use force to safeguard the independence of any country or group of countries in the Middle East requesting aid against Communist-inspired aggression
31Latin America US exercised power in Central and Latin America After WWII US feared spread of Communism to Latin American CountriesRio Pact- regional defense alliance between 18 countries in Latin AmericaOAS- Organization of American States which increased cooperation with states in the Western HemisphereCrisis began when Fidel Castro overthrew the Cuban Dictator in US did not support Castro because his movement was infiltrated by CommunismCastro seized Cuba (American property), US cut off all aid and supplies, and Castro turned to the Soviet Union for aid.
32The Arms Race Arms Race- The struggle to gain weapon superiority Whenever one side would seem to be gaining the upper hand in the cold war the other would respond with new programs and policiesThe growth of Nuclear Arsenals was increasing in US and Soviet Union.1953 US exploded their first thermonuclear device and at the same time the Soviet Union successfully tested a hydrogen device of its own.Between 1954 and 1958 US conducted 19 hydrogen bomb tests at Bikini Island in the PacificThis explosion was 750 times more explosive than the atomic bomb
33BrinkmanshipBrinkmanship- is the policy of risking war to protect the nations interests (Russian roulette with the life of our nation)MAD- Mutual Assured Destruction- combination of deterrence and willingness to use nuclear weapons, may have helped prevent the cold war from turning hot.Soviet Union used ICBM’s (Intercontinental Ballistic missiles)- long range rockets as their delivery systemUS lagged behind soviet Union in Missile development
34SputnikFirst artificial satellite to orbit Earth launched by the Soviets.This scared AmericansUS tried to launch a satellite and it came tumbling downU-2 incident- shooting down of American Spy plane by the soviet’s with a guided missile