Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Cold War 1945-1991.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1991."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

Did the polarization of the world by the two superpowers benefit or harm global development?

The Cold War led to the creation of global alliances that continue to impact the world today.

4 The “Cold War” A newspaper columnist, Walter Lippmann argued that the policy of containment could not work because he did not think the U.S. could contain the Soviet Union everywhere. He published his columns about containment in a book he titled, The Cold War Lippmann came up with the term Cold War to describe a kind of war that did not include bloodshed.

5 What? War of words and military posturing between the United States and the Soviet Union: The Cold War When?

6 Why? US and USSR were allied in WWII against Fascism but the common enemy had been defeated the reason for co-operation was gone

7 Cold War Time Line 1945-United Nations Formed
1946- Churchill “Iron Curtain” Speech 1947- Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan 1948- Soviets blockade Berlin-US launches Airlift effort. 1949-NATO formed 1953-Stalin dies 1955-Warsaw Pact formed 1956-Kruschev and de-Stalinization in USSR Soviets crush uprising in Hungary 1960- U-2 Incident heightens tensions 1961-Berlin Wall goes up

8 What is a Superpower? An extremely powerful nation with greater political, economic, or military power than most other nations. After WWII the United States and the Soviet Union emerge as the world’s Superpowers

9 Beginning of the Cold War 1945-1948
Yalta Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin Potsdam Atlee, Truman, Stalin At the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, before WWII was over, basic philosophical differences became glaring: Democracy and the free enterprise system versus dictatorship and communism

10 Seeds of fear and distrust
The Soviet Union feared the capitalist West. The United States feared communism. After World War II, the United States and Great Britain wanted the Eastern European nations to determine their own governments. Stalin feared that the Eastern European nations would be anti-Soviet if they were allowed free elections.

11 Self-determination United States and Great Britain wanted self- determination for Eastern European nations. Self-determination embodies the right for all peoples to determine their own economic, social and cultural development.

12 What to do with Germany? At the Potsdam Conference in 1945, it was decided by the four victorious powers of World War II - Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America that the territory of the former German Empire as defined by the borders of 1937 was to be divided into four zones of occupation.

13 Division of Germany and Berlin

14 Germany-Two Countries - 1949
The Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, was formally created in September October 7th 1949 The German Democratic Republic, East Germany was set up by the Soviets

15 Two Capitols: Bonn and Berlin

16 Divided Berlin

17 Berlin-Deep in Soviet Germany

18 Buffer States Satellite States
Buffer between East and West. Eastern Europe became Soviet satellite nations. Pro-Soviet. These people were no longer free.

19 Iron Curtain From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

20 Iron Curtain Cartoon


22 Truman Doctrine: Background
Greek Government vs Greek Communists Truman requested that Congress provide $400,000,000 worth of aid to both the Greek and Turks to stave off communism in the region Truman argued that a Communist victory in the Greek Civil War would endanger the political stability of Turkey, which would undermine the political stability of the Middle East. This could not be allowed in light of the region's immense strategic importance to U.S. national security.

23 Truman Doctrine 1947 The United States was compelled to assist "free peoples" in their struggles against "totalitarian regimes" because the spread of authoritarianism would "undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States." The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to actively offering assistance to preserve the political integrity of democratic nations when such an offer was deemed to be in the best interest of the United States.

24 Truman Doctrine: Legacy
In the words of the Truman Doctrine, it became "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." The Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from withdrawal and isolation to one of possible intervention in far away conflicts.

25 Marshall Plan 1948: Rebuild War-torn Europe
“The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” ~ George Marshall

26 Marshall Plan: Legacy A great humanitarian effort. Secretary of State Marshall became the only military general ever to receive a Nobel Prize for peace. The Marshall Plan also institutionalized and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become a integral part of U.S. foreign policy.

27 Marshall Plan Aid to Europe 1948-1952

28 War Crimes Trials The Nuremberg Trials took place November 21, 1945 to October 1, Determined the fates of 22 Nazi officials who played a role in the holocaust.

29 War Crimes Trials Legacy
The Nuremberg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law such as: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Geneva Convention, and many others.

30 Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Issued by the United Nations in The first global expression of rights to which all human beings are entitled

31 Berlin Blockade: 24 June 1948 -12 May 1949
The three western sections of Germany and Berlin and created a West German government and announced a new currency. Stalin responded on June 24, 1948 by attempting to force the western allies out of Berlin altogether. He cut off rail and road access to the western side of the city and turned off electricity.

32 Berlin Airlift Begins: June 25, 1948
The United States and Great Britain mounted a massive airlift to keep the western sectors supplied with the 5000 tons of food per day and fuel that the city needed…and chocolate for children! Lt. Halvorsen dropping candy. He became known as the “candy bomber”.

33 Berlin Airlift 277,264 flights and 1.5 million tons of aid.

34 Why was NATO created? The Berlin blockade provided compelling evidence that in order to deter the Soviets from further aggression, an alliance was necessary between nations of Western Europe and the United States.

35 North Atlantic Treaty Organization 4 April 1949
Netherlands Norway Portugal 1952: Greece & Turkey 1955: West Germany 1982: Spain 1990: Reunited Germany Former Soviet Republics Canada Denmark France Iceland Italy United States Belgium Britain Luxemburg Article 5: "an armed attack against one or more of the European signatories or the North American signatories, would be considered an attack against all of them".

36 Spread of the Communism: China
Chiang Kai-shek was the leader of the anticommunist Nationalists, supported by the United States Chiang Kai-shek signing the UN charter

37 Spread of the Communism: China
毛泽东 Chairman Mao and his Little Red Book Communist Mao Zedong was victorious over Chiang Kai-shek Establishment of the People's Republic of China Maoist Phase 1949 – 1976

38 Spread of the Communism: China
People have come together to support the Communist Party.

39 Spread of the Cold War: Proxy Wars
The Korean War: when the Cold War became a global conflict. Mindful that a full-scale nuclear exchange would be a disaster for both sides, the superpowers fought each other through a variety of proxy wars and "shadow struggles" in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and dozens of other places.  No global third world war has yet to take place. 

40 Spread of the Communism: Korea
In 1945, Korea was freed from the Japanese. The country was split in half at the 38th parallel. The two countries hated each other.   North Korea Kim Il Sung Communist South Korea Syngman Rhee Capitalist

41 U.N. Police Action In Korea: 1950-1953
The Korean War began when the Communist government of North Korea, allied with the Soviet Union and tried to take over South Korea. Chinese Soldiers

42 Began what became the U.S. policy of containment
U.N. Police Action In Korea: The first military clash of the Cold War and the first United Nations-sanctioned conflict Technically American troops weren’t fighting the Korean War-The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’. The U.S. was the most important and richest country in the U.N. so it sent the most troops and supplied most of the weapons. Began what became the U.S. policy of containment

43 Containment UNITED STATES VS USSR In 1947, the United States adopted the policy of containment: keep communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves.


45 The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’.
Korean War: A UN Police Action The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’. Declared a ‘police action’ because US operated under the UN. The US sent the most troops and supplied most of the weapons.

46 General Douglas MacArthur - Supreme Commander of UN Forces
Korean War General Douglas MacArthur - Supreme Commander of UN Forces

47 Korean War A grief stricken American infantryman whose buddy has been killed in action is comforted by another soldier. In the background a corpsman methodically fills out casualty tags, Haktong-ni area, Korea. August 28, Sfc. AlChang. (Army)

48 China Enters the Korean War

49 Korean War: A Police Action
Back and forth across the 38th Parallel The ‘see-saw’ of the Korean War.

50 Korean War


52 Korean War Ends (or does it?)
Heavy fighting continued throughout the first half of 1953 The Armistice was suddenly signed on July 27th, 1953. U.S. signed the peace deal with North Korea and China North and South Korea have never officially signed any peace pact, it is only considered a truce. Technically, the Korean War is still going on today.

53 Korean War: Who Wins? South Korea remained free of communism
Containment had worked US continued presence: DMZ: Demilitarized Zone Still two separate nations today. Kim Jung Il leads an impoverish and backward country where his people are starving and freezing to death. About 28,500 U.S. troops are currently stationed in South Korea. Efforts are underway to recover thousands of US MIAs According to a 2003 agreement, US troops will eventually be will be moved farther south

54 The Human Cost

55 What is this?

56 Warsaw Pact 1955 Warsaw Pact 1955 U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria
Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania

57 NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

58 Space Race: 1957 The Russians beat the United States to space— they have the technological edge! Outcomes: Emphasis on math an science in school Sputnik I


60 Mutual Assured Destruction
Whoever shoots first, dies second.


62 Spread of the Cold War: Vietnam War
Domino Theory To justify his support for South Vietnam, President Dwight Eisenhower and Vice-President Richard Nixon put forward the 'domino theory. It was argued that if the first domino is knocked over then the rest topple in turn.




66 Cuban Missile Crisis

67 Between the Soviets under Stalin consolidated their power in Eastern Europe. Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary became part of the "Soviet Bloc" – or "satellite system." Within the communist parties of these countries there were purges to remove national communists - one in four were removed. Yugoslavia under Tito was an exception to Soviet control. It practiced "national communism" and was able to remain independent largely due to western economic aid.


69 Many British colonies gained their independence because Britain was forced to reduce expenses abroad, and the colonies demanded their independence.


71 Mandates

72 The 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement between Britain and France established proposed zones of influence for those two countries over the Middle East. Map: Geoffrey Gaudreault, NPR

73 After World War I, the French and British draw the borders of the modern Middle East, and the League of Nations sanctions their domination of the region. Map: Geoffrey Gaudreault, NPR; Source: A History of the Arab Peoples by Albert Hourani

74 East German Flag

75 At German reunification, on October 3, 1990,
German Capital Moves from Bonn to Berlin


77 Because we live as free peoples in a democratic system in the United States is it our responsibility and duty to ensure the rest of the world becomes like us?

78 A Formally Divided Germany 1949
May : End of Berlin blockade May : Federal Republic of Germany is founded: West Germany September : Berlin Airlift ends October 7, 1949: German Democratic Republic is founded: East Germany

Download ppt "The Cold War 1945-1991."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google