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The Cold War 1945-1991. 2 CONCEPTUAL UNIT QUESTION Did the polarization of the world by the two superpowers benefit or harm global development?

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Presentation on theme: "The Cold War 1945-1991. 2 CONCEPTUAL UNIT QUESTION Did the polarization of the world by the two superpowers benefit or harm global development?"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cold War

2 2 CONCEPTUAL UNIT QUESTION Did the polarization of the world by the two superpowers benefit or harm global development?

3 3 ENDURING UNDERSTANDING The Cold War led to the creation of global alliances that continue to impact the world today.

4 4 A newspaper columnist, Walter Lippmann argued that the policy of containment could not work because he did not think the U.S. could contain the Soviet Union everywhere. He published his columns about containment in a book he titled, The Cold War. Lippmann came up with the term Cold War to describe a kind of war that did not include bloodshed. The “Cold War”

5 5 War of words and military posturing between the United States and the Soviet Union: The Cold War What? When?

6 6 US and USSR were allied in WWII against Fascism but the common enemy had been defeated the reason for co-operation was gone Why?

7 United Nations Formed Churchill “Iron Curtain” Speech Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan Soviets blockade Berlin-US launches Airlift effort NATO formed 1953-Stalin dies 1955-Warsaw Pact formed 1956-Kruschev and de-Stalinization in USSR Soviets crush uprising in Hungary U-2 Incident heightens tensions 1961-Berlin Wall goes up Cold War Time Line

8 8 An extremely powerful nation with greater political, economic, or military power than most other nations. After WWII the United States and the Soviet Union emerge as the world’s Superpowers What is a Superpower?

9 9 At the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, before WWII was over, basic philosophical differences became glaring: Democracy and the free enterprise system versus dictatorship and communism Beginning of the Cold War Yalta Churchill, Roosevelt, Stalin Potsdam Atlee, Truman, Stalin

10 10 The Soviet Union feared the capitalist West. The United States feared communism. After World War II, the United States and Great Britain wanted the Eastern European nations to determine their own governments. Stalin feared that the Eastern European nations would be anti-Soviet if they were allowed free elections. Seeds of fear and distrust

11 11 United States and Great Britain wanted self- determination for Eastern European nations. Self-determination embodies the right for all peoples to determine their own economic, social and cultural development. Self-determination

12 12 At the Potsdam Conference in 1945, it was decided by the four victorious powers of World War II - Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America that the territory of the former German Empire as defined by the borders of 1937 was to be divided into four zones of occupation. What to do with Germany?

13 13 Division of Germany and Berlin

14 14 The Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, was formally created in September October 7 th 1949 The German Democratic Republic, East Germany was set up by the Soviets Germany-Two Countries

15 15 Two Capitols: Bonn and Berlin

16 16 Divided Berlin

17 17 Berlin-Deep in Soviet Germany

18 18 Buffer States Satellite States Buffer between East and West. Eastern Europe became Soviet satellite nations. Pro-Soviet. These people were no longer free.

19 19 Iron Curtain From Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe. -- Sir Winston Churchill, 1946

20 20 Iron Curtain Cartoon

21 21

22 22 Greek Government vs Greek Communists Truman requested that Congress provide $400,000,000 worth of aid to both the Greek and Turks to stave off communism in the region Truman argued that a Communist victory in the Greek Civil War would endanger the political stability of Turkey, which would undermine the political stability of the Middle East. This could not be allowed in light of the region's immense strategic importance to U.S. national security. Truman Doctrine: Background

23 23 The United States was compelled to assist "free peoples" in their struggles against "totalitarian regimes" because the spread of authoritarianism would "undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States." The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to actively offering assistance to preserve the political integrity of democratic nations when such an offer was deemed to be in the best interest of the United States. Truman Doctrine 1947

24 24 Truman Doctrine: Legacy In the words of the Truman Doctrine, it became "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." The Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from withdrawal and isolation to one of possible intervention in far away conflicts.

25 25 “ The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” ~ George Marshall Marshall Plan 1948: Rebuild War-torn Europe

26 26 A great humanitarian effort. Secretary of State Marshall became the only military general ever to receive a Nobel Prize for peace. The Marshall Plan also institutionalized and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become a integral part of U.S. foreign policy. Marshall Plan: Legacy

27 27 Marshall Plan Aid to Europe

28 28 The Nuremberg Trials took place November 21, 1945 to October 1, 1946 Determined the fates of 22 Nazi officials who played a role in the holocaust. War Crimes Trials

29 29 The Nuremberg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law such as: Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Geneva Convention, and many others. War Crimes Trials Legacy

30 30 Issued by the United Nations in 1948 The first global expression of rights to which all human beings are entitled Universal Declaration of Human Rights

31 31 The three western sections of Germany and Berlin and created a West German government and announced a new currency. Stalin responded on June 24, 1948 by attempting to force the western allies out of Berlin altogether. He cut off rail and road access to the western side of the city and turned off electricity. Berlin Blockade: 24 June May 1949

32 32 The United States and Great Britain mounted a massive airlift to keep the western sectors supplied with the 5000 tons of food per day and fuel that the city needed…and chocolate for children! Berlin Airlift Begins: June 25, 1948 Lt. Halvorsen dropping candy. He became known as the “candy bomber”.

33 33 Berlin Airlift 277,264 flights and 1.5 million tons of aid.

34 34 The Berlin blockade provided compelling evidence that in order to deter the Soviets from further aggression, an alliance was necessary between nations of Western Europe and the United States. Why was NATO created?

35 35 North Atlantic Treaty Organization 4 April 1949  Netherlands  Norway  Portugal  1952: Greece & Turkey  1955: West Germany  1982: Spain  1990: Reunited Germany  Former Soviet Republics  Canada  Denmark  France  Iceland  Italy  United States  Belgium  Britain  Luxemburg Article 5: "an armed attack against one or more of the European signatories or the North American signatories, would be considered an attack against all of them".

36 36 Chiang Kai-shek was the leader of the anticommunist Nationalists, supported by the United States Chiang Kai-shek signing the UN charter Spread of the Communism: China

37 37 Communist Mao Zedong was victorious over Chiang Kai-shek Establishment of the People's Republic of China Maoist Phase 1949 – 1976 Spread of the Communism: China 毛泽东 Chairman Mao and his Little Red Book

38 38 People have come together to support the Communist Party. Spread of the Communism: China

39 39 The Korean War: when the Cold War became a global conflict. Mindful that a full-scale nuclear exchange would be a disaster for both sides, the superpowers fought each other through a variety of proxy wars and "shadow struggles" in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and dozens of other places. No global third world war has yet to take place. Spread of the Cold War: Proxy Wars

40 40 In 1945, Korea was freed from the Japanese. The country was split in half at the 38th parallel. The two countries hated each other. North Korea Kim Il Sung Communist South Korea Syngman Rhee Capitalist Spread of the Communism: Korea

41 41 The Korean War began when the Communist government of North Korea, allied with the Soviet Union and tried to take over South Korea. U.N. Police Action In Korea: Chinese Soldiers

42 42 The first military clash of the Cold War and the first United Nations-sanctioned conflict Technically American troops weren’t fighting the Korean War-The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’. The U.S. was the most important and richest country in the U.N. so it sent the most troops and supplied most of the weapons. Began what became the U.S. policy of containment U.N. Police Action In Korea:

43 43 In 1947, the United States adopted the policy of containment: keep communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves. Containment UNITED STATES VS USSR

44 44

45 45 The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’. Declared a ‘police action’ because US operated under the UN. The US sent the most troops and supplied most of the weapons. Korean War: A UN Police Action

46 46 General Douglas MacArthur - Supreme Commander of UN Forces Korean War

47 47 A grief stricken American infantryman whose buddy has been killed in action is comforted by another soldier. In the background a corpsman methodically fills out casualty tags, Haktong-ni area, Korea. August 28, Sfc. AlChang. (Army) Korean War

48 48 China Enters the Korean War

49 49 Korean War: A Police Action Back and forth across the 38 th Parallel The ‘see-saw’ of the Korean War.

50 50 Korean War

51 51

52 52 Heavy fighting continued throughout the first half of 1953 The Armistice was suddenly signed on July 27 th, U.S. signed the peace deal with North Korea and China North and South Korea have never officially signed any peace pact, it is only considered a truce. Technically, the Korean War is still going on today. Korean War Ends (or does it?)

53 53 South Korea remained free of communism Containment had worked US continued presence: DMZ: Demilitarized Zone Still two separate nations today. Kim Jung Il leads an impoverish and backward country where his people are starving and freezing to death. About 28,500 U.S. troops are currently stationed in South Korea. Efforts are underway to recover thousands of US MIAs According to a 2003 agreement, US troops will eventually be will be moved farther south Korean War: Who Wins?

54 54 The Human Cost

55 55 What is this?

56 56 Warsaw Pact 1955 U. S. S. R. Albania Bulgaria Czechoslovakia East Germany Hungary Poland Romania Warsaw Pact 1955

57 57 NATO vs. Warsaw Pact

58 58 The Russians beat the United States to space— they have the technological edge! Outcomes: Emphasis on math an science in school Space Race: 1957 Sputnik I

59 59

60 60 Mutual Assured Destruction Whoever shoots first, dies second.

61 61 STOP HERE

62 62 Spread of the Cold War: Vietnam War Domino Theory To justify his support for South Vietnam, President Dwight Eisenhower and Vice-President Richard Nixon put forward the 'domino theory. It was argued that if the first domino is knocked over then the rest topple in turn.

63 63

64 64

65 65

66 66 Cuban Missile Crisis

67 67 Between the Soviets under Stalin consolidated their power in Eastern Europe. Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary became part of the "Soviet Bloc" – or "satellite system." Within the communist parties of these countries there were purges to remove national communists - one in four were removed. Yugoslavia under Tito was an exception to Soviet control. It practiced "national communism" and was able to remain independent largely due to western economic aid.

68 68

69 69 Many British colonies gained their independence because Britain was forced to reduce expenses abroad, and the colonies demanded their independence.

70 70

71 71 Mandates

72 72 The 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement between Britain and France established proposed zones of influence for those two countries over the Middle East. Map: Geoffrey Gaudreault, NPR

73 73 After World War I, the French and British draw the borders of the modern Middle East, and the League of Nations sanctions their domination of the region. Map: Geoffrey Gaudreault, NPR; Source: A History of the Arab Peoples by Albert Hourani

74 74 East German Flag

75 75 At German reunification, on October 3, 1990,German reunification German Capital Moves from Bonn to Berlin

76 76

77 77 Because we live as free peoples in a democratic system in the United States is it our responsibility and duty to ensure the rest of the world becomes like us?

78 78 May : End of Berlin blockade May : Federal Republic of Germany is founded: West Germany September : Berlin Airlift ends October 7, 1949: German Democratic Republic is founded: East Germany A Formally Divided Germany 1949


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