2CONCEPTUAL UNIT QUESTION Did the polarization of the world by the two superpowers benefit or harm global development?
3ENDURING UNDERSTANDING The Cold War led to the creation of global alliances that continue to impact the world today.
4The “Cold War”A newspaper columnist, Walter Lippmann argued that the policy of containment could not work because he did not think the U.S. could contain the Soviet Union everywhere. He published his columns about containment in a book he titled, The Cold War Lippmann came up with the term Cold War to describe a kind of war that did not include bloodshed.
5What?War of words and military posturing between the United States and the Soviet Union:The Cold WarWhen?
6Why?US and USSR were allied in WWII against Fascism but the common enemy had been defeated the reason for co-operation was gone
7Cold War Time Line 1945-United Nations Formed 1946- Churchill “Iron Curtain” Speech1947- Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan1948- Soviets blockade Berlin-US launchesAirlift effort.1949-NATO formed1953-Stalin dies1955-Warsaw Pact formed1956-Kruschev and de-Stalinization in USSRSoviets crush uprising in Hungary1960- U-2 Incident heightens tensions1961-Berlin Wall goes up
8What is a Superpower?An extremely powerful nation with greater political, economic, or military power than most other nations.After WWII the United States and the Soviet Union emerge as the world’s Superpowers
9Beginning of the Cold War 1945-1948 YaltaChurchill, Roosevelt, StalinPotsdamAtlee, Truman, StalinAt the Yalta and Potsdam Conferences, before WWII was over, basic philosophical differences became glaring: Democracy and the free enterprise system versus dictatorship and communism
10Seeds of fear and distrust The Soviet Union feared the capitalist West. The United States feared communism.After World War II, the United States and Great Britain wanted the Eastern European nations to determine their own governments.Stalin feared that the Eastern European nations would be anti-Soviet if they were allowed free elections.
11Self-determinationUnited States and Great Britain wanted self- determination for Eastern European nations.Self-determination embodies the right for all peoples to determine their own economic, social and cultural development.
12What to do with Germany?At the Potsdam Conference in 1945, it was decided by the four victorious powers of World War II - Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States of America that the territory of the former German Empire as defined by the borders of 1937 was to be divided into four zones of occupation.
14Germany-Two Countries - 1949 The Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, was formally created in September October 7th 1949 The German Democratic Republic, East Germany was set up by the Soviets
18Buffer States Satellite States Buffer between East and West.Eastern Europe became Soviet satellite nations.Pro-Soviet.These people were no longer free.
19Iron CurtainFrom Stettin in the Balkans, to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lies the ancient capitals of Central and Eastern Europe Sir Winston Churchill, 1946
22Truman Doctrine: Background Greek Government vs Greek CommunistsTruman requested that Congress provide $400,000,000 worth of aid to both the Greek and Turks to stave off communism in the regionTruman argued that a Communist victory in the Greek Civil War would endanger the political stability of Turkey, which would undermine the political stability of the Middle East.This could not be allowed in light of the region's immense strategic importance to U.S. national security.
23Truman Doctrine 1947The United States was compelled to assist "free peoples" in their struggles against "totalitarian regimes" because the spread of authoritarianism would "undermine the foundations of international peace and hence the security of the United States."The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to actively offering assistance to preserve the political integrity of democratic nations when such an offer was deemed to be in the best interest of the United States.
24Truman Doctrine: Legacy In the words of the Truman Doctrine, it became "the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures." The Truman Doctrine effectively reoriented U.S. foreign policy, away from withdrawal and isolation to one of possible intervention in far away conflicts.
25Marshall Plan 1948: Rebuild War-torn Europe “The U. S. should provide aid to all European nations that need it. This move is not against any country or doctrine, but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos.” ~ George Marshall
26Marshall Plan: LegacyA great humanitarian effort.Secretary of State Marshall became the only military general ever to receive a Nobel Prize for peace.The Marshall Plan also institutionalized and legitimized the concept of U.S. foreign aid programs, which have become a integral part of U.S. foreign policy.
28War Crimes TrialsThe Nuremberg Trials took place November 21, 1945 to October 1, Determined the fates of 22 Nazi officials who played a role in the holocaust.
29War Crimes Trials Legacy The Nuremberg trials had a great influence on the development of international criminal law such as:Universal Declaration of Human Rights, The Geneva Convention, and many others.
30Universal Declaration of Human Rights Issued by the United Nations in The first global expression of rights to which all human beings are entitled
31Berlin Blockade: 24 June 1948 -12 May 1949 The three western sections of Germany and Berlin and created a West German government and announced a new currency.Stalin responded on June 24, 1948 by attempting to force the western allies out of Berlin altogether. He cut off rail and road access to the western side of the city and turned off electricity.
32Berlin Airlift Begins: June 25, 1948 The United States and Great Britain mounted a massive airlift to keep the western sectors supplied with the 5000 tons of food per day and fuel that the city needed…and chocolate for children!Lt. Halvorsen dropping candy. He became known as the “candy bomber”.
33Berlin Airlift277,264 flights and 1.5 million tons of aid.
34Why was NATO created?The Berlin blockade provided compelling evidence that in order to deter the Soviets from further aggression, an alliance was necessary between nations of Western Europe and the United States.
35North Atlantic Treaty Organization 4 April 1949 NetherlandsNorwayPortugal1952: Greece & Turkey1955: West Germany1982: Spain1990: Reunited GermanyFormer Soviet RepublicsCanadaDenmarkFranceIcelandItalyUnited StatesBelgiumBritainLuxemburgArticle 5: "an armed attack against one or more of the European signatories or the North American signatories, would be considered an attack against all of them".
36Spread of the Communism: China Chiang Kai-shek was the leader of the anticommunist Nationalists, supported by the United StatesChiang Kai-shek signing the UN charter
37Spread of the Communism: China 毛泽东Chairman Maoand hisLittle Red BookCommunist Mao Zedong was victorious over Chiang Kai-shekEstablishment of the People's Republic of ChinaMaoist Phase 1949 – 1976
38Spread of the Communism: China People have come together to support the Communist Party.
39Spread of the Cold War: Proxy Wars The Korean War: when the Cold War became a global conflict.Mindful that a full-scale nuclear exchange would be a disaster for both sides, the superpowers fought each other through a variety of proxy wars and "shadow struggles" in Korea, Vietnam, Afghanistan, and dozens of other places. No global third world war has yet to take place.
40Spread of the Communism: Korea In 1945, Korea was freed from the Japanese.The country was split in half at the 38th parallel.The two countries hated each other. North KoreaKim Il SungCommunistSouth Korea Syngman Rhee Capitalist
41U.N. Police Action In Korea: 1950-1953 The Korean War began when the Communist government of North Korea, allied with the Soviet Union and tried to take over South Korea.Chinese Soldiers
42Began what became the U.S. policy of containment U.N. Police Action In Korea:The first military clash of the Cold War and the first United Nations-sanctioned conflictTechnically American troops weren’t fighting the Korean War-The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’.The U.S. was the most important and richest country in the U.N. so it sent the most troops and supplied most of the weapons.Began what became the U.S. policy of containment
43ContainmentUNITED STATES VS USSRIn 1947, the United States adopted the policy of containment: keep communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves.
45The United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’. Korean War: A UN Police ActionThe United Nations sent troops from its member states to ‘keep peace’.Declared a ‘police action’ because US operated under the UN.The US sent the most troops and supplied most of the weapons.
46General Douglas MacArthur - Supreme Commander of UN Forces Korean WarGeneral Douglas MacArthur - Supreme Commander of UN Forces
47Korean WarA grief stricken American infantryman whose buddy has been killed in action is comforted by another soldier. In the background a corpsman methodically fills out casualty tags, Haktong-ni area, Korea. August 28, Sfc. AlChang. (Army)
52Korean War Ends (or does it?) Heavy fighting continued throughout the first half of 1953The Armistice was suddenly signed on July 27th, 1953.U.S. signed the peace deal with North Korea and ChinaNorth and South Korea have never officially signed any peace pact, it is only considered a truce.Technically, the Korean War is still going on today.
53Korean War: Who Wins? South Korea remained free of communism Containment had workedUS continued presence: DMZ: Demilitarized ZoneStill two separate nations today. Kim Jung Il leads an impoverish and backward country where his people are starving and freezing to death.About 28,500 U.S. troops are currently stationed in South Korea. Efforts are underway to recover thousands of US MIAsAccording to a 2003 agreement, US troops will eventually be will be moved farther south
62Spread of the Cold War: Vietnam War Domino TheoryTo justify his support for South Vietnam, President Dwight Eisenhower and Vice-President Richard Nixon put forward the 'domino theory. It was argued that if the first domino is knocked over then the rest topple in turn.
67Between the Soviets under Stalin consolidated their power in Eastern Europe. Poland, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary became part of the "Soviet Bloc" – or "satellite system." Within the communist parties of these countries there were purges to remove national communists - one in four were removed. Yugoslavia under Tito was an exception to Soviet control. It practiced "national communism" and was able to remain independent largely due to western economic aid.
72The 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement between Britain and France established proposed zones of influence for those two countries over the Middle East. Map: Geoffrey Gaudreault, NPR
73After World War I, the French and British draw the borders of the modern Middle East, and the League of Nations sanctions their domination of the region. Map: Geoffrey Gaudreault, NPR; Source: A History of the Arab Peoples by Albert Hourani
77Because we live as free peoples in a democratic system in the United States is it our responsibility and duty to ensure the rest of the world becomes like us?
78A Formally Divided Germany 1949 May : End of Berlin blockadeMay : Federal Republic of Germany is founded: West GermanySeptember : Berlin Airlift endsOctober 7, 1949: German Democratic Republic is founded: East Germany