Presentation on theme: "What were the causes, main events, and effects of the early Cold War?"— Presentation transcript:
1What were the causes, main events, and effects of the early Cold War? The Cold War Chapter 25What were the causes, main events, and effects of the early Cold War?
2The Cold War Begins Section 1 How did U.S. leaders respond to the threat of Soviet expansion in Europe?Vocabulary:-satellite state containment-Cold War Marshall Plan-iron curtain Berlin airlift-Truman Doctrine NATO-George F. Kennan Warsaw Pact
3StandardsSSUSH20The student will analyze the domestic and international impact of the Cold War on the United States.Element: SSUSH20.aDescribe the creation of the Marshall Plan, U.S. commitment to Europe, the Truman Doctrine, and the origins and implications of the containment policy.Element: SSUSH20.bExplain the impact of the new communist regime in China, the outbreak of the Korean War, and how these events contributed to the rise of Senator Joseph McCarthy.Element: SSUSH20.cDescribe the Cuban Revolution, the Bay of Pigs and the Cuban missile crisis.Element: SSUSH20.dDescribe the Vietnam War, the Tet offensive, and growing opposition to the war.
4The Cold War Begins Roots of the Cold War Main Idea: By the end of World War II, the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union had fallen apart due to the fear that the Soviet Union was attempting world domination.Meeting the Soviet ChallengeMain Idea: At President Truman’s urging, Congress aided Greece, Turkey, and other countries struggling against communist movements.Containing Soviet ExpansionMain Idea: George F. Kennan presented a policy called containment, with the goal of keeping communism within its current borders.The Cold War Heats UpMain Idea: When the Soviets blockaded Allied-controlled West Berlin, The United Sates and Britain used a massive airlift to fly supplies into the city, showing how far they would go to fight communism.
5American and Soviet Systems American SystemCapitalist democracyFree electionsEconomic and religious freedomPrivate propertyRespect for individual rightsSoviet SystemDictatorshipCommunist Party made all economic, political and military decisionsNo religious worshipNo private propertyNo freedom of speech
6Cold WarName given to the competition between the U.S. and the Soviet UnionPolitical and economic conflict and military tensionsLasted nearly 50 years, until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991
8President Truman April 12, 1945, Roosevelt dies In the Congress for 10 yearsVice President for 83 daysTook a harder line toward Stalin than Roosevelt had
9Yalta Conference February, 1945 Poland – Stalin agreed to let Poles choose own governmentCreation of United Nations
10Potsdam Conference July, 1945 U.S.S.R. wanted $10 billion from Germany in reparationsAllies said “No!”Agreed to divide Germany into four zonesU.S. pushed for Polish elections as well as Eastern EuropeTruman received word that the atom bomb had been tested
12Iron Curtain Stalin predicted the triumph of communism over capitalism Cominform: Soviet agency to direct Communist parties in the worldWinston Churchill: “…an iron curtain has descended across the Continent.”
13Iron Curtain“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent. Behind that line lie all the capitals of…Central and Eastern Europe…The Communist parties, which were very small in all these Eastern States of Europe, have been raised to pre-eminence and power far beyond their numbers and are seeking everywhere to obtain totalitarian control”--”Iron Curtain” speechWinston Churchill, March 5, 1946
14Satellite Nations Soviets lost 20 million people during WWII Soviets wanted to protect its interests, so Stalin established satellite nations (countries subject to Soviet domination)Poland, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, and East Germany became satellite nations by 1948Yugoslavia maintained a degree of independence from the U.S.S.R.Tito (Josip Broz) was the communist dictator of Yugoslavia; refused to take orders from Stalin
15ContainmentIdea from George Kennan, an American diplomat stationed in Moscow; West needed intelligent long-range policiesPolicy recognized the possibility that Eastern Europe was lost to communismU.S. to resist formation of Communist governments elsewhere in the world
16Truman Doctrine Great Britain gave world leadership to U.S. 1947 declaration that the U.S. would support nations that were being threatened by communismAmericans provided aid to Greece and Turkey; Congress provided $400 million, plus military bases
17Marshall PlanMarshall Plan: called for the nations of Europe to draw up a program for economic recovery from the war. The U.S. would support them with financial aid of $13 billionHoped to create strong democracies and open new markets for American goods
22NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization “association of democratic peace-loving states” to defend Western EuropeCollective security: mutual military assistance; “an armed attack against one or more of them…shall be considered an attack against them all.”
23Warsaw Pact1955, Soviet Union formed a military alliance with its satellite nations in Eastern Europe except for Yugoslavia
24What Will Happen to Postwar Europe? COMPARING VIEWPOINTSWhat Will Happen to Postwar Europe?
26The Korean War Section 2How did President Truman use the power of the presidency to limit the spread of communism in East Asia?Vocabulary:-Jiang Jieshi Douglas MacArthur-Mao Zedong limited war-38th parallel SEATO
27The Korean WarCommunists Gain Control of ChinaMain Idea: Americans were shocked when communists won the Civil War in China and greatly expanded communist control in the world.Americans Fight in KoreaMain Idea: After communist-controlled North Korea invaded South Korea, the United States sent military aid to South Korea, which ultimately resulted in a stalemate.The Korean War Has Lasting EffectsMain Idea: President Eisenhower’s threat of nuclear weapons convinced the communists to sign a cease-fire, but there was no clear victory in the war.
28Civil War in China Jiang Jieshi – leader of Nationalist government Corruption – diverted American aidGenerals would not fightMao Zedong – Communist rebelPromised to feed the peopleDefeated Jiang in 1948, with Jiang fleeing to TaiwanEstablished the People’s Republic of China
32Americans Fight in Korea Korea: after WWII, Korea divided into two zones – North and South; Yalu River divided China and North KoreaSouth Korea was democratic (pro-American)North Korea- communistic governmentJune, 1950, North Koreans invaded South Korea by crossing over the 38th parallelUSSR boycotted the Security CouncilUN called on members to defend South Korea
33Douglas MacArthur Fought in WWI and WWII Commander of Americans in Asia in WWIIControlled Japan after war, establishing a democracy
34WarNorth Koreans swept through S. Korea with only area near Pusan unconqueredDefended Pusan; MacArthur invaded Inchon to cut North Korea’s supply linesN. Koreans retreated back across the 38th parallelUN troops neared Chinese border“Home by Christmas” offensive
35Chinese Attack Chinese pour over the border in November, 1950 Push UN forces back into S. KoreaStalemateDisagreed with Truman on limited warLetter to Joseph MartinFired by Truman in 1951War dragged on until 195353,000 American dead
37Should the United States Invade China? DECISION POINT
38Dwight Eisenhower Elected 1952 promising to end the Korean War Careful not to start a war with USSR over Eastern EuropeContinued policy of containmentEnded the Korean War with a cease-fire in 1953
39Results of the Korean War Two Koreas remain divided at about the 38th parallel; North Korea is communist and South Korea is a democracySet a precedent of Presidents committing U.S. troops to battle without a declaration of warIncreased military spendingSoutheast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO)
40Domestic Politics and Policies Presidents Truman and Eisenhower pursued different styles to meet the challenges of the postwar period.
42The Cold War Expands Section 3 What methods did the U.S. use in its global struggle against the Soviet Union?Vocabulary:-arms race Nikita Khrushchev-John Foster Douglas nationalize-Eisenhower Doctrine Suez crisis-massive retaliation Eisenhower Doctrine-brinkmanship CIA-mutually assured NASAdestruction
43The Arms Race Heightens Tensions The Cold War ExpandsThe Arms Race Heightens TensionsMain Idea: When the United States discovered that the Soviet Union had set off an atomic bomb, an arms race between the two nations started as each developed increasingly powerful nuclear weapons.Eisenhower Introduces New PoliciesMain Idea: Eisenhower favored a defense policy of stockpiling nuclear weapons so that the United States could threaten enemies with the use of overwhelming force.The Cold War Goes GlobalMain Idea: Tensions between the United States and the Soviet Union led to conflicts in countries throughout the world.Continued…
44Communist Advances Soviets test an atomic bomb U.S. develops hydrogen bombChina is taken over by Mao Zedong after he defeats Jiang Jieshi in a civil war; Beijing falls to the Communists in 1949
45Hydrogen Bomb Truman ordered the production of a hydrogen bomb Tested in 1952Oppenheimer and Einstein were opposedKnew that Soviets would develop it; arms race
46Arms Race Struggle to gain weapons superiority over the USSR Tested the hydrogen bomb at Bikini IslandNuclear ArsenalsBrinkmanshipICBMs
49Domestic Uses of Cold War Technology INFOGRAPHIC
50Eisenhower’s New Policies John Foster Dulles – Secretary of StatePolicy of massive retaliationBrinkmanship - “You have to take some chances for peace, just as you take chances in war.”Policy saved money by focusing on nuclear power, not conventional forces
51Stalin’s Death Stalin died March 5, 1953 Nikita Khrushchev became new leaderDeath of Stalin eased tensions between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R.
52Iron Curtain Uprisings Poland – workers rioted and won greater control of governmentHungary – Huge demonstrations crushed by Soviet troops; many executed
53Suez Crisis 1956 Nasser of Egypt seized the British-owned Suez Canal. British and French attacked Egypt to regain the canal.Eisenhower got them to withdraw, leaving Egypt with the canal
54Eisenhower DoctrineStated that the U.S. would aid any country in the Middle East requesting aid against Aggression (Communist-inspired)Sent troops to Lebanon to put down a revolt
55Middle East Palestine: many Jews fled there I948 Jews proclaimed nation of IsraelWar between Israel and ArabsU.S. backed Israel; USSR backed Arabs
56Iran 1952 pro-communist leader controlled Iran 1953 U.S. organized his overthrow by the CIA and restored the Shah of IranCreated long-term resentment against the U.S.
62First Man in Space Yuri Gagarin in Vostok 1 April 12, 1961 First to orbit the EarthParachuted to Earth
63First American in Space John GlennThree orbitsFebruary 20, 1962
64Apollo Program Moon program Apollo 11 July 20, 1969 Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin walk on the Moon
65Space Shuttle Program began in 1972 Reusable space craft Two have been lost
66Space Station Joint program between the United States and Russia Weight – 404,069 poundsDimensions – 240 feet by 90 feet
67Future of Space Travel Since 1961, more than 400 humans in space Working to improve life on EarthFuture – extend life beyond Earth
68Domino TheoryBelief that if one country fell to the Communists, its neighbors would followVietnam, a French colony; French fought Ho Chi Minh, Vietnamese communist rulerU.S. provided military aid to FranceFrench lost in 1954 at Dien Bien PhuVietnam divided into Communist North and anti-Communist SouthU.S. provided aid to South
73Cold War at Home Section 4 How did fear of domestic communism affect American society during the Cold War?Vocabulary:-Red Scare Alger Hiss-Smith Act Joseph R. McCarthy-McCarthyism HUAC-Hollywood Ten blacklist-Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
74The Cold War at Home Worrying About Communists at Home Main Idea: Americans began to fear that communists in the United States were working for the Soviet Union, and Congress started investigations of potential communists.Spy Cases Worry AmericansMain Idea: Spy trials attracted public attention and drew awareness to the threat of communist agents working against the United States. Alger Hiss’s case and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg trial were two controversial cases that received national interestMcCarthy Uses Ruthless TacticsMain Idea: Senator McCarthy became chairman of an investigations committee against potential communists, were he spent years making reckless accusations that often discredited people.
75Political Cartoons: Red Scare or Red Smear ANALYZE
76HUAC – Second Red ScareSmith Act: unlawful to overthrow the governmentHouse Un-American Activities CommitteeCharged Hollywood personalities with being members of the Communist partyHollywood Ten – Cited for contempt of Congress and served jail terms ranging from six months to a yearBlacklist – list of people whom employers agreed not to hire
77Reading Skill: Identify Causes and Effects NOTE TAKING
78McCarran-Walter ActSet a quota system for countries; this system discriminated against immigrants from Asia and Southern and Central Europe to keep communists out of the U.S.Vetoed by Truman, but Congress passed it over the President’s veto
79Spy CasesAlger Hiss: convicted of lying in a slander case against Whittaker ChambersJulius and Ethel Rosenberg: accused of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets; executed in 1953
80Reading Skill: Compare and Contrast NOTE TAKINGAnswers:1. D2. C
82McCarthy Era Joseph McCarthy-Republican Senator Indicated that State Dept was full of communistsAccused Sec. of State George MarshallSaid Army full of commies in 1954Hearings were televised and Americans saw him as a bully