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By Loren Miller THE PRESIDENCY “No man will ever bring out of the Presidency the reputation which carries him into it. To myself, personally, it brings.

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Presentation on theme: "By Loren Miller THE PRESIDENCY “No man will ever bring out of the Presidency the reputation which carries him into it. To myself, personally, it brings."— Presentation transcript:

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2 By Loren Miller

3 THE PRESIDENCY “No man will ever bring out of the Presidency the reputation which carries him into it. To myself, personally, it brings nothing but increasing drudgery and daily loss of friends.” Thomas Jefferson

4 THE PRESIDENCY “As to the presidency, the two happiest days of my life were those of my entrance upon the office and my surrender of it.” Martin Van Buren

5 THE PRESIDENCY “After the White House what is there to do but drink!” Franklin Pierce

6 THE PRESIDENCY After Vice President Truman heard about the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt, he said to a small collection of reporters: “Boys, if you ever pray, pray for me now.”

7 THE PRESIDENCY “All the president is, is a glorified public relations man who spends his time flattering, kissing, and kicking people to get them to do what they are supposed to do anyway.” Harry Truman

8 EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY Chief Clerk: Presidents perform administrative duties that Congress requests. Presidents perform administrative duties that Congress requests. Government is best that governs the least. Government is best that governs the least. Presidents focused their attention on foreign affairs while Congress focused on domestic matters. Presidents focused their attention on foreign affairs while Congress focused on domestic matters. Madison found himself unable to fund the War of 1812 and unable to raise an army. Madison found himself unable to fund the War of 1812 and unable to raise an army. The Monroe Doctrine The Monroe Doctrine Congress forged key compromises on slavery and paid of most of the national debt. Congress forged key compromises on slavery and paid of most of the national debt. Andrew Jackson, an outsider, grabs the reins of government and remakes the presidency. Andrew Jackson, an outsider, grabs the reins of government and remakes the presidency. Forced out Cabinet members who disagreed with him. Forced out Cabinet members who disagreed with him. Introduced the spoils system. Introduced the spoils system.

9 EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY Weakened Presidency: Andrew Jackson’s popularity and energetic personality raised the profile of the office. However, those who followed Jackson (with some exceptions) reverted back to “chief clerk.” Exceptions include: Andrew Jackson’s popularity and energetic personality raised the profile of the office. However, those who followed Jackson (with some exceptions) reverted back to “chief clerk.” Exceptions include: James Polk: westward expansion; used his power as commander in chief to instigate war with Mexico; acquired California, Arizona and Oregon Territory. James Polk: westward expansion; used his power as commander in chief to instigate war with Mexico; acquired California, Arizona and Oregon Territory. Abraham Lincoln: blockaded southern ports; suspended the writ of habeas corpus; spent money without Congressional approval; raised an army without Congressional approval. Abraham Lincoln: blockaded southern ports; suspended the writ of habeas corpus; spent money without Congressional approval; raised an army without Congressional approval. Abraham Lincoln reinterpreted Article II into a source of executive authority during emergencies. Abraham Lincoln reinterpreted Article II into a source of executive authority during emergencies.

10 EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY The Modern Presidency: As the United States industrialized and became a significant player in an interconnected world, the power of the presidency grew accordingly. As the United States industrialized and became a significant player in an interconnected world, the power of the presidency grew accordingly. Theodore Roosevelt used the office as a “bully pulpit.” He wanted to be “the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral.” Theodore Roosevelt used the office as a “bully pulpit.” He wanted to be “the bride at every wedding and the corpse at every funeral.” Bold assertions of presidential power: The Stewardship Theory Bold assertions of presidential power: The Stewardship Theory Breaks up corporate monopolies Breaks up corporate monopolies Initiates a Panamanian revolution Initiates a Panamanian revolution Wins a Nobel Peace Prize (mediating Japan/Russia) settlement Wins a Nobel Peace Prize (mediating Japan/Russia) settlement Sends fleet around the world Sends fleet around the world First president to travel to a foreign country First president to travel to a foreign country

11 EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY The Modern Presidency: Woodrow Wilson achieved some significant successes and suffered some great failures. Woodrow Wilson achieved some significant successes and suffered some great failures. Achieved industrial reforms Achieved industrial reforms Led the United States into World War I Led the United States into World War I Led efforts to create a League of Nations Led efforts to create a League of Nations Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Franklin D. Roosevelt and the New Deal Permanent bureaucracies Permanent bureaucracies Social Security and unemployment insurance Social Security and unemployment insurance Use of the media to communicate directly with the public—fireside chats Use of the media to communicate directly with the public—fireside chats Lend-Lease Program prior to U.S. involvement in WWII (without consent of Congress) Lend-Lease Program prior to U.S. involvement in WWII (without consent of Congress) Gave Britain 50 destroyers in exchange for rights to build military based on British territory (without consent of Congress) Gave Britain 50 destroyers in exchange for rights to build military based on British territory (without consent of Congress) The national government became the focus of power The national government became the focus of power

12 EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY Imperial Presidency Under Attack: By the end of World War II, the presidency had become a very powerful office and emphasis on the “cold war” in the 1950s and 1960s added to the president’s power. By the end of World War II, the presidency had become a very powerful office and emphasis on the “cold war” in the 1950s and 1960s added to the president’s power. The Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine Sending troops to Vietnam Sending troops to Vietnam Watergate, Richard Nixon’s resignation and Jimmy Carter’s inability to resolve the Iranian hostage situation frustrated the public and the presidency came under increasing attacks from Congress. Watergate, Richard Nixon’s resignation and Jimmy Carter’s inability to resolve the Iranian hostage situation frustrated the public and the presidency came under increasing attacks from Congress.

13 EVOLUTION OF THE PRESIDENCY The Contemporary Presidency: Following the Vietnam War and Watergate, the powers of the modern presidency has been diminished as the resources for presidential power fall short of the tasks he is expected to perform Following the Vietnam War and Watergate, the powers of the modern presidency has been diminished as the resources for presidential power fall short of the tasks he is expected to perform - divided government became the norm - a high national debt and budget deficits limited the expansion of federal programs What is required to succeed on the campaign trail is different from what is needed to handle the global demands of a modern president. What is required to succeed on the campaign trail is different from what is needed to handle the global demands of a modern president.

14 LEGAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PRESIDENT at least 35 years of age at least 35 years of age have lived in the United States 14 years have lived in the United States 14 years be a natural born citizen of the United States be a natural born citizen of the United States

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16 PRESIDENTIAL TRIVIA Only divorced president: Reagan Only divorced president: Reagan Only bachelor president: Buchanan Only bachelor president: Buchanan Shortest Term: Harrison (1 month) Shortest Term: Harrison (1 month) Largest President: Taft (350 pounds) Largest President: Taft (350 pounds) Smallest President: Madison (95 Smallest President: Madison (95 pounds) pounds) Youngest President: Roosevelt (42) Youngest President: Roosevelt (42) Oldest President: Reagan (77) Oldest President: Reagan (77)

17 INFORMAL CRITERIA FOR PRESIDENT Political Experience Political Experience gubernatorial experience preferred gubernatorial experience preferred senatorial experience preferred senatorial experience preferred 1972 to the present ??????? 1972 to the present ??????? Vice-president?? Vice-president??

18 INFORMAL CRITERIA FOR PRESIDENT Vice-president?? Vice-president?? VPs who became President by election: 1800s – Adams, Jefferson, Van Buren 1800s – Adams, Jefferson, Van Buren 1900s – T. Roosevelt, Coolidge, Truman, Nixon, Johnson, Bush 1900s – T. Roosevelt, Coolidge, Truman, Nixon, Johnson, Bush Military Hero?? Military Hero??

19 THE VICE PRESIDENCY If Washington is called “Mr. President,” then you need to call me “Your superfluous excellency.” John Adams, our first Vice President “[The Vice Presidency] is the most insignificant office that ever the invention of man contrived or his imagination conceived.” John Adams

20 THE VICE PRESIDENCY “The Vice Presidency isn’t worth a warm bucket of piss.” John Nance Garner, one of FDR’s Vice Presidents “I do not propose to be buried until I am really dead.” Daniel Webster, on not accepting the Vice Presidency

21 THE VICE PRESIDENCY “A little over a week ago, I took a rather unusual step for a vice president... I said something.” Spiro Agnew, Vice President under Richard Nixon “Look at all the Vice Presidents in history. Where are they? They were about as useful as a cow’s fifth teat.” Harry S Truman, one of FDR’s Vice Presidents Eisenhower/Nixon

22 THE VICE PRESIDENCY “Once the election is over, the Vice President’s usefulness is over. He’s like the second stage of a rocket. He’s damn important going into orbit, but he’s always thrown off to burn up in the atmosphere.” An aide to Vice President Hubert Humphrey “The Job of the Vice President is to go to weddings and funerals.” Harry S Truman

23 THE VICE PRESIDENCY “The person with the best job in the country is the Vice President.... All he has to do is get up in the morning and say, “How’s the President?’” Will Rogers

24 THE VICE PRESIDENCY Possibly our worst Vice President was Thomas Marshall (Wilson’s VP) “As vice president, I am responsible for nothing and influential nowhere” “My job is like a monkey cage– except that visitors do not offer me peanuts” In his inaugural address he promised to “acknowledge the insignificant influence of the office” He once told a bodyguard that “his job was pointless as no one every shoots a Vice President”

25 THE VICE PRESIDENCY n Recent vice presidents have been given greater access to the president and have been given more responsibilities than earlier vice presidents. –Al Gore and Dick Cheney –Would Joe Biden have accepted the vice presidency unless he was given access and responsibilities?

26 INFORMAL CRITERIA FOR PRESIDENT Executive Ability Executive Ability the ability to hire good people the ability to hire good people Ideology Ideology middle of the road middle of the road

27 INFORMAL CRITERIA FOR PRESIDENT Physical Stamina Physical Stamina Mental Stability Mental Stability Knowledge of the Issues Knowledge of the Issues Nominated by one of the two major parties Nominated by one of the two major parties

28 PRESIDENTIAL OATH PRESIDENTIAL OATH “I _____ do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.” -- Washington added “So help me God” and others followed this tradition -- Why do presidents have the choice of “swear or affirm” -- So Quakers could run for the office -- Only Franklin Pierce (1853) “affirmed”

29 OATH OF OFFICE OATH OF OFFICE Germany: “Promote the general welfare” and “protect the people from harm.” Philippines: “Do justice to every man.” Taiwan: “Safeguard the security of the State,” Ukraine: “Enhance the prestige of Ukraine in the world.” Iran: “Follow the example of the Prophet of Islam.” Mexico: “Look for the good and prosperity of the union.”

30 THE JOB OF PRESIDENT Act as Commander in Chief Negotiate Treaties Receive Foreign Ambassadors Nominate Top Federal Officials Veto Bills Faithfully Administer Federal Laws Pardon Persons for Federal Offenses Address Congress and the Nation

31 WHAT WE LOOK FOR What we Really Want

32 THE BEST & WORST THE BEST THE WORST 1. Franklin D. Roosevelt 2. Abraham Lincoln 3. George Washington 4. Thomas Jefferson 5. Theodore Roosevelt 6. Woodrow Wilson 7. Harry S Truman 8. Ronald Reagan 9. Andrew Jackson 10. Dwight D. Eisenhower 1. James Buchanan 2. Franklin Pearce 3. Warren Harding 4. John Tyler 5. Andrew Johnson 6. Millard Fillmore 7. William Henry Harrison 8. Zachary Taylor 9. Chester Arthur 10. G.W. Bush 2011

33 GREAT PRESIDENTS ARE: Blessed with a great crisis Blessed with a great crisis Resolve the crisis in an innovative and creative way Resolve the crisis in an innovative and creative way Leave a legacy Leave a legacy

34 CONCEPTS OF PRESIDENTIAL POWER Narrow (Whig Model)-- presidential power is limited to the specific grants of power enumerated in the Constitution Narrow (Whig Model)-- presidential power is limited to the specific grants of power enumerated in the Constitution Pre-TR and Taft, Harding and Coolidge Pre-TR and Taft, Harding and Coolidge Broad (Stewardship Model) -- presidential power is greater than what is enumerated in the Constitution Broad (Stewardship Model) -- presidential power is greater than what is enumerated in the Constitution the role of precedent the role of precedent

35 PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER What should we look for in a president? What should we look for in a president? James David Barber, Duke University James David Barber, Duke University Presidential Character is the “way a President orients himself toward life.” Presidential Character is the “way a President orients himself toward life.” Developed mainly during childhood Developed mainly during childhood Self-esteem underlies character. Self-esteem underlies character. The better people feel about themselves, the more likely they will be able to accept criticism, think rationally, and learn on the job. The better people feel about themselves, the more likely they will be able to accept criticism, think rationally, and learn on the job.

36 PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER Based on two dimensions Based on two dimensions 1. The amount of energy a person puts into being president 1. The amount of energy a person puts into being president active or passive active or passive Plays the roles of being president aggressively Plays the roles of being president aggressively Rarely plays the roles of being president aggressively except during crisis Rarely plays the roles of being president aggressively except during crisis 2. How a person feels about being president 2. How a person feels about being president positive or negative positive or negative Enjoys the job of being president; flexible Enjoys the job of being president; flexible Unhappy in the job; anxious; a sense of duty Unhappy in the job; anxious; a sense of duty

37 PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER PositiveNegative Active ADAPTIVE: self-confident; flexible; creates opportunities for action; enjoys the exercise of power, does not take himself too seriously; optimistic; emphasizes the "rational mastery" of his environment; power used as a means to achieve beneficial results. COMPULSIVE: power as a means to self-realization; expends great energy on tasks but derives little joy; preoccupied with whether he is failing or succeeding; low self-esteem; inclined to rigidity and pessimism; highly driven; problem managing aggression. Passive COMPLIANT: seek to be loved; easily manipulated; low self- esteem is overcome by ingratiating personality; reacts rather than initiates; superficially optimistic. WITHDRAWN: responds to a sense of duty; avoid power; low self-esteem compensated by service to others; responds rather than initiates; avoids conflict and uncertainty. emphasizes principles and procedures and an aversion to politicking.

38 PRESIDENTIAL CHARACTER

39 PRESIDENTIAL ROLES  Constitutional Powers

40 LEGISLATIVE LEADER When does Congress follow the lead of the president? When does Congress follow the lead of the president? The Honeymoon Period The Honeymoon Period International Crisis International Crisis

41 LEGISLATIVE LEADER When does Congress follow the lead of the president? When does Congress follow the lead of the president? The Honeymoon Period The Honeymoon Period International Crisis International Crisis Luck Luck Commanding majority in Congress Commanding majority in Congress

42 LEGISLATIVE LEADER When does Congress follow the lead of the president ? When does Congress follow the lead of the president ? The Honeymoon Period The Honeymoon Period International Crisis International Crisis Luck Luck Commanding majority in Congress Commanding majority in Congress Skilled at manipulation (LBJ Treatment) Skilled at manipulation (LBJ Treatment)

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45 NOTHING LIKE A GOOD CRISIS ! Truman Korea Invaded 9 Eisenhower Egypt Seizes Suez Canal 7 Kennedy Cuban Missile Crisis 13 Johnson Bombing Halt of N. Vietnam 14 Nixon Vietnam Peace Agreement 16 Carter Hostages Seized in Iran 28 Bush Iraq Invasion of Kuwait 20 Clinton Invasion of Haiti 5 Bush September 11th 38 President Event Increase in Approval

46 Presidents Under Unified Government

47 Presidents Under Divided Government

48 APPROVAL RATINGS

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57 Approval Ratings AverageHighLow Truman Eisenhower Kennedy Johnson Nixon Ford Carter Reagan H.W. Bush Clinton G.W. Bush Obama

58 Why Approval Ratings Go Down Over Time Expectations rise in campaigns and are dashed as time limits resources Expectations rise in campaigns and are dashed as time limits resources Things get blamed, rightly or wrongly, on the president Things get blamed, rightly or wrongly, on the president Major negative events influence how people evaluate presidents Major negative events influence how people evaluate presidents Press and media criticism accumulate over time Press and media criticism accumulate over time

59 The Buck Stops at the Top

60 PRESIDENTIAL AGENDA New Requests to Congress

61 VETO POWER Threat of a Veto Threat of a Veto Line Item Veto Line Item Veto Only on money bills Only on money bills Supreme Court declared this unconstitutional in 1997 Supreme Court declared this unconstitutional in 1997 Do Presidents Veto Many Bills?

62 PRESIDENTIAL VETOES AND OVERRIDES

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64 Only one two term president did not veto a single bill.... Who was he?

65 SIGNING STATEMENTS AND EXECUTIVE ORDERS Signing Statement (do not have the force of law) Signing Statement (do not have the force of law) When the president signs a bill into law, he may attach a statement which indicates how the executive branch wants the bureaucracy to interpret the law. When the president signs a bill into law, he may attach a statement which indicates how the executive branch wants the bureaucracy to interpret the law. Most often rhetorical but sometimes contrary to congressional intent Most often rhetorical but sometimes contrary to congressional intent Executive Order (they have the force of law but can be overturned by subsequent administrations Executive Order (they have the force of law but can be overturned by subsequent administrations Proclamation – ceremonial Proclamation – ceremonial National Security Directive and Presidential Decision Directive – deal with national security and defense matters National Security Directive and Presidential Decision Directive – deal with national security and defense matters Emancipation Proclamation Emancipation Proclamation Integration of the Armed Forces Integration of the Armed Forces

66 Signing Statements President Total % with Constitutional Objections Johnson % Nixon % Ford % Carter % Reagan % Bush % Clinton % Bush % Obama (2012) %

67 # of Significant Executive Orders Louisiana Purchase Emancipation Proclamation Japanese Internment Desegregation of the Military Initiation of Affirmative Action Creation of the Peace Corp Creation of the EPA

68 OPEN & CLOSED POLITICS State of the Union Message State of the Union Message Special Message Special Message Veto Power Veto Power Press Conferences Press Conferences Personal Contact Patronage Pork Barrel OpenClosed Presidential power is the power to persuade

69 State of the Union “The president shall from time to time give to the Congress information on the State of the Union.... Article II, Section 3, Clause : Known as the “Annual Message” 1 st Radio Broadcast: Coolidge, st Television Message: Truman, 1947 The Longest: Taft, 1910 (27,651 words) The Shortest: Washington, 1790 (1,089 words)

70 PRESIDENTIAL SPEECHES In Thousands Obama

71 PRESS CONFERENCES President Average Per Month John Kennedy ( ) 1.9 Lyndon Johnson ( ) 2.2 Richard Nixon ( ) 0.6 Gerald Ford ( ) 1.3 Jimmy Carter ( ) 1.2 Ronald Reagan ( ) 0.5 George H. W.Bush ( ) 2.9 Bill Clinton ( ) 2.0 G.W. Bush ( ) 2.2 Obama ( ) 1.9 Press Conference

72 COMMANDER IN CHIEF Lincolnian View -- an expansive view of presidential authority Lincolnian View -- an expansive view of presidential authority Wilsonian-FDR View -- an executive- legislative partnership in war leadership; statutes passed giving broad powers to the president Wilsonian-FDR View -- an executive- legislative partnership in war leadership; statutes passed giving broad powers to the president

73 COMMANDER IN CHIEF The president is the ultimate decision maker in military matters The president is the ultimate decision maker in military matters Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bomb Truman’s decision to drop the atomic bomb Nixon’s invasion of Cambodia Nixon’s invasion of Cambodia Reagan sent troops to Lebanon and to Grenada Reagan sent troops to Lebanon and to Grenada Clinton sent troops to Haiti and to Bosnia Clinton sent troops to Haiti and to Bosnia Obama sent special forces to Pakistan to assassinate Osama bin Laden Obama sent special forces to Pakistan to assassinate Osama bin Laden

74 PARTY LEADER The President is deprived of the advantage of a strong party organization that other heads of government enjoy The President is deprived of the advantage of a strong party organization that other heads of government enjoy Federalism has led to fragmentation where we have 50 separate and autonomous state organizations Federalism has led to fragmentation where we have 50 separate and autonomous state organizations Therefore, Presidents are heavily dependent on their own personal skills Therefore, Presidents are heavily dependent on their own personal skills

75 Private Clubs and Organizations Precinct Party Committees Municipal Party Committees County Party Committees State Party Committees

76 CHIEF DIPLOMAT The Two Presidencies Thesis The Two Presidencies Thesis Receive Ambassadors Receive Ambassadors Summit Conferences Summit Conferences

77 CHIEF DIPLOMAT Treaties and Executive Agreements Treaties and Executive Agreements Emergency Powers to be used during time of crisis (Inherent Powers) Emergency Powers to be used during time of crisis (Inherent Powers) Lincoln suspended civil liberties at the start of the Civil War Lincoln suspended civil liberties at the start of the Civil War Lincoln called state militias into national service Lincoln called state militias into national service Truman seized the steel mills during the Korean War to prevent a strike (overturned by the Supreme Court) Truman seized the steel mills during the Korean War to prevent a strike (overturned by the Supreme Court)

78 Treaties and Executive Agreements Period # of Treaties# of Ex. Agreements Johnson, ,083 Nixon, ,317 Ford, Carter, ,476 Reagan, ,840 Bush, ,350 Clinton, ,048 Bush, ,990 Obama,

79 DOMESTIC PROVISIONS... he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.... (Art. II, sec. 3)... he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed.... (Art. II, sec. 3) In re Neagle In re Neagle Inherent Executive Powers Inherent Executive Powers Presidents have assumed “inherent powers” (not specifically mentioned in the Constitution). Presidents have assumed “inherent powers” (not specifically mentioned in the Constitution). Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana Jefferson’s purchase of Louisiana Bush’s suspension of civil liberties of foreign nationals held in military prison at Guantanamo Bay Bush’s suspension of civil liberties of foreign nationals held in military prison at Guantanamo Bay

80 DOMESTIC PROVISIONS... and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. (Art. II, sec. 2)... and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment. (Art. II, sec. 2) -- amnesty (blanket pardon) -- Andrew Johnson gave amnesty to all former Confederate soldiers former Confederate soldiers -- Jimmy Carter gave amnesty to Vietnam era draft resisters era draft resisters

81 PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS Can a pardon be rejected? Can a pardon be rejected? -- if you accept a pardon that is an admission of guilt When does a president give most of their pardons?

82 PRESIDENTIAL PARDONS Per Year

83 PUBLIC LEADER Presidents are news... Even when they do nothing Presidents are news... Even when they do nothing Presidents keep their eyes on public opinion polls Presidents keep their eyes on public opinion polls Trial Balloon Trial Balloon With public sentiment, nothing can fail; without it nothing can succeed.” Abraham Lincoln

84 IS IT TOO MUCH FOR ONE PERSON? The responsibilities are awesome The responsibilities are awesome There is no “vacation” There is no “vacation” The remuneration is poor The remuneration is poor

85 IS IT TOO MUCH FOR ONE PERSON? The president fulfills two roles that, in other nations, are performed by two different people The president fulfills two roles that, in other nations, are performed by two different people Head of Government Head of Government Chief of State Chief of State “The office of President is such a bastardized thing, half royalty and half democracy, that nobody knows whether to genuflect or spit.” Jimmy Breslin


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