Presentation on theme: "President Truman &The Beginning of The Cold War. What was “The Cold War?” A U.S./Soviet conflict in which the two powers would avoid fighting each other."— Presentation transcript:
What was “The Cold War?” A U.S./Soviet conflict in which the two powers would avoid fighting each other directly but would block each other’s goals around the world. (1945-1991) Struggle for advantage in the power vacuum left by the defeat of Germany and Japan, collapse of Western Europe, crumbling of empires in Asia and Africa US & USSR take sides in other nations’ wars Competition in technology and sports…EVERYTHING, actually!
Stalin and Eastern Europe Stalin sought a Soviet “sphere of influence” in Eastern Europe to end the Soviet Union’s vulnerability to attack 10 million man Red Army occupied half of Europe at the end of the war Stalin ignores the Yalta Agreement; pro-Soviet “puppet” regimes installed in Bulgaria, Romania, Albania, Yugoslavia, Poland
Truman vows to get tough Stalin had betrayed the Allies; he refused to “appease” Stalin Wanted to maintain the support of millions of Polish and Eastern European immigrant voters at home Did not want to be seen as “soft on Communism”
Tough Talk Stalin, Feb. 9, 1946: “Capitalism is a danger to world peace.” This speech is seen as a “declaration of World War III” by many in the U.S.
The Kennan Telegram “The Soviet Union is a political force committed fanatically to the belief that there could be no permanent peace with the United States and the only answer was a long-term, patient but firm and vigilant containment of Russian expansionist tendencies.” -Diplomat George Kennan, 1946
Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech March, 1946 in Missouri “An Iron Curtain has descended across the continent.” “There is nothing they admire so much as strength and nothing for which they have less respect for than military weakness.” http://www.historyplace.com /sounds/ushistory/iron- curtain.wav http://www.historyplace.com /sounds/ushistory/iron- curtain.wav
Crisis in Europe, Winter 1946-47 Cities and industry in ruins Economic collapse, fuel shortages, unemployment, homelessness, famine, tuberculosis epidemic Cigarettes and candy bars used as money in Germany! African and Asian colonies rebelling against weak European powers Communist movements explode in France and Italy
Crisis in Europe, cont. Civil wars in Greece and Turkey: Communist-supplied guerrilla movements try to take over! February 21, 1947: Great Britain informs U.S. that it could no longer afford to assist Greece and Turkey The day that the U.S. becomes the “world’s police officer?”
Dean Acheson, Undersecretary of State “Like apples in a barrel infected by the corruption of one rotten one...” “The fall of Greece or Turkey would open Asia, Western Europe, and the oil fields of the Middle East to the Red menace.” “The Soviet Union is playing one of the greatest gambles in history. We and we alone are in a position to break up that play.”
“Truman Doctrine” speech, March 12, 1947 The United States must support free peoples everywhere “resisting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” $300 million military aid to Greece, $100 million to Turkey “Containment” policy: contain Communism and stop its expansion The Truman Doctrine commits the U.S. to an open- ended global struggle against Communism; became the policy of the U.S. for the next four decades http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/harrystruma ntrumandoctrine.html http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/harrystruma ntrumandoctrine.html
National Security Act of 1947 Merged Departments of War and Navy into Dept. of Defense Created a separate Air Force, the National Security Council, and CIA The U.S. becomes a permanently militarized society… and still is.
The Marshall Plan, 1948 American aid to end suffering in Europe and rebuild $17 billion in aid to Europe over five years Three goals: End the chaos and weakness that would lead to Communism Provide new markets for American goods Strengthen alliances in Europe
Stalin tightens his grip Stalin takes over Hungary and Czechoslovakia in 1947 and 1948; Stalin turns his attention to Germany. Germany had been divided into four occupation zones: Great Britain, US, France, Soviet Union Berlin divided into four occupation zones (110 miles within Soviet-controlled territory) June, 1948-May, 1949: Stalin blocks off all railroads and highways into West Berlin, cutting 2 million people off
The Berlin Airlift Truman orders food and supplies airlifted into West Berlin (every 3 min., 24 hrs./day) April 1949: NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization created (10 Western European nations + U.S. and Canada) May 1949: Stalin gives up, Democratic West Germany is created; Communist East Germany later in the year
Asia Soviets create a “sphere of influence” in Manchuria Under the control of Gen. MacArthur, Japan becomes a capitalist democracy and a U.S. ally Soviet Union and U.S. divide Korea into Communist North and Democratic South In China, U.S. supports Nationalist Chiang Kai- Shek in civil war against Communist Mao Zedong
1949: A Really Bad Year. Sept. 1949: Soviet Union detonates their first atomic bomb Oct. 1949: Communists win Chinese Civil War; Mao Zedong establishes the People’s Republic of China: “Red China” Truman and the Democrats attacked for being “soft on communism” and “losing China” “The worst defeat the U.S. has suffered in its history.”
1950: Even worse. Jan. 1950: Truman orders the development of the H- Bomb NSC-68: Special report calls for a massive U.S. military buildup (quadrupling spending) to stop Communist plans for world domination- the beginning of the arms race June 24, 1950: Soviet- backed Communist North Korean troops invade U.S.- backed South Korea- The Korean War begins…