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A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE

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1 A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE
OUT OF MANY A HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PEOPLE Chapter 26 The Cold War Begins © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

2 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part One: Introduction © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Chapter Focus Questions
What steps did the Allies take to promote growth in the postwar global economy? How did the Truman Doctrine shape U.S. postwar foreign policy? How did the “Fair Deal” differ from the “New Deal”? What contributed to McCarthyism? What were the most important trends of the 1950s? What issues were at the center of the election in 1952? © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Two: American Communities: University of Washington, Seattle: Students and Faculty Face the Cold War © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

5 American Communities: University of Washington, Seattle: Students and Faculty Face the Cold War
In 1948 philosophy professor Melvin Rader was falsely accused of being a communist conspirator. During the cold war era, the federal government was providing substantial support for higher education through the G.I. Bill. The student population at the University of Washington grew rapidly and a strong sense of community among the students grew, led by older, former soldiers. The cold war put a damper on this community. Wild charges of communist subversion led several states to require state employees to take loyalty oaths. In this repressed atmosphere, faculty members were dismissed, students dropped out of school, and the free speech was restrained on the campuses. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Global Insecurities at War’s End
Part Three: Global Insecurities at War’s End © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 Financing the Future Fears of the return of depression led the United States to take a much more active international stance. The Soviet Union refused to ratify an agreement that would rebuilt the world along capitalist lines and bring aid to its people. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 The Division of Europe Map: Divided Europe
FDR’s realism allowed him to recognize that some kinds of spheres of influence were inevitable for the winning powers. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

9 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
MAP 26.1 Divided Europe During the Cold War, Europe was divided into opposing military alliances, the North American Treaty Organization (NATO) and the Warsaw Pact (Communist bloc). © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

10 The United Nations and Hopes for Collective Security
The Allies created a world organization that would mediate disputes between members and impede aggressors. The UN achieved great success with humanitarian programs. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 Appointed to the UN delegation by President Harry Truman in 1946, Eleanor Roosevelt (1884–1962) pressured the organization to adopt the Declaration of Human Rights in In this photograph, taken in 1946, the former First Lady is exchanging ideas with Warren Austin, also a delegate to the United Nations. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

12 The Policy of Containment
Part Four: The Policy of Containment © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 The Truman Doctrine While FDR favored diplomacy and compromise, Truman was committed to a get-tough policy with the Soviets. When civil war threatened the governments in Turkey and Greece, the United States warned of a communist coup and provided $400 million to defeat the rebels. The Truman Doctrine committed the United States to a policy of trying to contain communism. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 The Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan provided aid to rebuild Europe.
The plan had the long-term impact of revitalizing the European capitalist economy and driving a further wedge between the West and Soviet Union. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 The Berlin Crisis and the Formation of NATO
The gap widened when the western zones of Germany merged. When the Soviets cut off land access to West Berlin, the United States airlifted supplies to the city. The United States also created an alliance of anti-Soviet nations, NATO, and the Soviets responded with the Warsaw Pact. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

16 Located deep within communist East Germany, West Berlin was suddenly cut off from the West when Josef Stalin blockaded all surface traffic in an attempt to take over the warn-torn city. Between June 1948 and May 1949, British and U.S. pilots made 272,000 flights, dropping food and fuel to civilians. The Berlin Airlift successfully foiled the blockade, and the Soviet Union reopened access on May 12, 1949. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 Atomic Diplomacy The American policy of containing communism rested on the ability to stop its expansion by military means. After the Soviets developed nuclear weapons, both sides amassed lethal stockpiles. The U.S. and Soviets could not come up with a plan to control them. Within a few years both sides had a stockpile of hydrogen bombs. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

18 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Five: Cold War Liberalism © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 “To Err is Truman” The early years of the Truman presidency were plagued by protests by Americans tired of war-time sacrifices. An inability to bring troops home quickly or end rationing hurt Truman’s popularity. Inflation spread and strikes paralyzed the nation. Congress blocked Truman’s proposals to revive the New Deal. In 1946, Republicans gained control of Congress and started to undo the New Deal. Over Truman’s veto, Republicans passed the Taft-Hartley bill that curtailed the power of labor. Refer to “Los Angeles Strike, 1946.” © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Police and strikers confront each other in Los Angeles during one of many postwar strikes in Employers wanted to cut wages, and workers refused to give up the higher living standard achieved during the war © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 The 1948 Election Henry Wallace challenged Truman by running on the Progressive ticket, a campaign effectively quashed by red-baiting. Truman repositioned himself to the left by discrediting Congressional Republicans. He also offered a liberal legislative package that Congress defeated. The Democrats split again over civil rights when segregationists ran Strom Thurmond for president. Map: The Election of 1948 Truman managed to hold on to the New Deal coalition and won re-election. Refer to “Dewey Defeats Truman.” © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 MAP 26.2 The Election of l948 An initially unpopular candidate, Harry Truman made a whistle-stop tour of the country by train to win 49.5 percent of the popular vote to Dewey’s 45.1 percent. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 President Truman waves a copy of the Chicago Daily Tribune, printed before the election results were in. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 The Fair Deal In 1949, Truman proposed a package of reforms, the Fair Deal. Truman won some gains in public housing, minimum wage and Social Security increases, but little else. Truman helped to define cold war liberalism as promoting economic growth through expanded foreign trade and federal expenditures, chiefly defense. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Six: The Cold War at Home © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 The National Security Act of 1947
The cold war triggered a massive reordering of governmental power. Established under the National Security Act of 1947, the Defense Department became a huge and powerful bureaucracy. The Department of Defense and the National Science Foundation pursued scientific research, especially related to physics. The CIA dwarfed the size of the State Department. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

28 Published in 1947, this full-color comic book appeared as one of many sensationalistic illustrations of the threat of the “commie menace” to Americans at home. Approximately 4 million copies of Is This Tomorrow? were printed, the majority distributed to church groups or sold for ten cents a copy. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 The Loyalty-Security Program
Allegedly to combat subversive influences, Truman promoted a loyalty program. The attorney general published a list of potentially subversive organizations. Many groups disbanded and previous membership in them destroyed individuals’ careers. A wide range of restrictions on alleged subversives passed Congress. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

30 The Second Red Scare The House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) launched investigations into communist influence in Hollywood. A parade of friendly witnesses denounced communists. Many people gave names of suspect former friends so that they themselves would be cleared and able to work again. A few witnesses (many blacklisted later) attacked HUAC and a handful went to prison for contempt of Congress. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

31 Spy Cases Public anxieties were heightened when former State Department advisor Alger Hiss was accused of being a communist spy. Richard Nixon pursued the charges. Hiss went to jail for perjury. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed despite worldwide protests. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

32 McCarthyism Sen. Joseph McCarthy caused a sensation when he charged that 205 communists worked for the State Department. His lack of evidence did not stop him from striking a chord with many Americans. McCarthyism attacked women’s organizations and homosexuals. McCarthy’s crusade was destroyed when he went on national TV and appeared deranged, making wild charges of communist infiltration of the Army. Refer to “McCarthy.” © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

33 The tables turned on Senator Joseph McCarthy (1908–57) after he instigated an investigation of the U.S. Army for harboring Communists. A special congressional committee then investigated McCarthy for attempting to make the Army grant special privileges to his staff aide, Private David Schine. During the televised hearings, Senator McCarthy discredited himself. In December 1954, the Senate voted to censure him, thus robbing him of his power. He died three years later. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Seven: Cold War Culture © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 An Anxious Mood But prosperity did not dispel American anxiety over nuclear war and economic depression. Movies and plays reflected cold war anxieties and alienation as well as anti-communism. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 Seeing History The Hollywood Film Invasion, U.S.A.
© 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 Edward Hopper (1882–1967) was the most well-known realist painter in the United States at mid-century. Many of his paintings portray the starkness and often the loneliness of American life, his cityscapes depicting empty streets or all-night restaurants where the few patrons sit at a distance from each other. This painting, owned by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York, expresses the mood of alienation associated with Cold War culture. SOURCE: Edward Hopper, ( ), “Office in a Small City,” Oil on canvas, H. 28 in. W. 40 in. Signed (lower left) Edward Hopper, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, George A. Hearn Fund, (53.183). © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 The Family as Bulwark Chart: U. S. Birthrate, 1900–80
The move to the suburbs, high levels of consumption, and even the rush toward marriage and parenthood illustrated these fears. The baby boom and high consumer spending changed the middle-class family. To sustain support of larger families and high rates of consumer spending, a growing number of married, middle-class women sought employment. Table: Distribution of Total Personal Income Among Various Segments of the Population, (in percentages) © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

39 FIGURE 26.2 U.S. Birth Rate, 1900–80 The bulge of the “baby boom,” a leading demographic factor in the postwar economy, stands out for this fifty-year period. SOURCE: National Archives and Records Administration. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 The Family as Bulwark Commentators bemoaned the destruction of the traditional family that they linked to the threat of communism. High-profile experts weighed in with popular books and articles about the dangers of women who abandoned their housewife roles. The conservative trend was also evident in declining numbers of woman college graduates. Refer to “The Ideal Kitchen.” © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

42 This photograph, taken in 1955, presents an ideal image of domestic life for American women during the Cold War. This young mother sits with her three small children in a well-equipped kitchen that depicts the high standard of living that symbolized the “American way of life.” © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

43 Military-Industrial Communities in the West
The cold war impacted the West more than other regions. New military-industrial communities arose, especially in California, and older communities also benefited from federal spending. To accommodate the burgeoning population, new highway systems were built that created housing sprawl, traffic congestion, air pollution, and strains on local water supplies. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

44 Zeal for Democracy The revitalization of patriotism during World War II continued after the return of peace. The American Way became a popular theme of public celebrations and patriotic messages spread through public education. Voices of protest arose but had little impact. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 Stalemate for the Democrats
Part Eight: Stalemate for the Democrats © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

46 Democratizing Japan and “Losing” China
The United States achieved its greatest Asian success in Japan where a host of reforms brought an unprecedented degree of democracy and where they received valuable military bases. In China, Mao Zedong’s communist revolution overthrew the corrupt, pro-American regime of Jiang Jeishi. The Truman administration was saddled with the blame for having “lost” China. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 The Korean War Map: The Korean War
When North Koreans attempted a forced reunification of the peninsula, Truman called it an act of Soviet aggression. Smarting from McCarthyite attacks, Truman felt compelled to act. With the Soviets boycotting the U.N., the Security Council authorized sending in troops. American forces, commanded by Douglas MacArthur, first pushed North Koreans back to their side of the dividing line and then went farther north. Chinese troops pushed the U.N. forces back until a costly stalemate settled in. Refer to “American Soldiers in Korea.” © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

48 MAP 26.3 The Korean War The intensity of battles underscored the strategic importance of Korea in the cold war. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

49 By midcentury, General Douglas MacArthur (1880–1964) had earned a reputation as one of the most flamboyant and controversial American generals. This photograph, taken in September 1950, shows him during his finest hour as commander of the UN troops during the Korean war. He is observing the shelling of enemy forces shortly before he led a brilliant and successful amphibious landing at the Inchon peninsula. Nearly 1.8 million Americans served in Korea. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 The Price of National Security
Criticized for bypassing Congress, Truman explained that his authority came from NSC-68, a National Security Council position paper that: consolidated decision making advocated a massive buildup of military power The war left Korea devastated and greatly expanded the containment principle far beyond Europe. The military stalemate left many Americans disillusioned with the promise of easy victories. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

51 “I like Ike”:The Election of 1952
The Korean War also effectively ruined Truman’s presidency, particularly after he fired General MacArthur. After Truman said he would not run for re-election, the Democratic Party turned to Adlai Stevenson, who offered no solutions to the key problems. Dwight Eisenhower was the Republican candidate and ran a moderate campaign short on specifics. His running mate, Richard Nixon, waged a relentless attack on Stevenson. Eisenhower effectively used the peace issue, pledging to go to Korea to settle the war. Republicans won control of the White House and Congress. Refer to “Nixon.” © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

52 On December 23, 1952, Republican vice-presidential candidate Richard M
On December 23, 1952, Republican vice-presidential candidate Richard M. Nixon appeared on national television to defend himself against charges that he had taken illegal campaign contributions. This photograph shows him with one of those gifts, a black-and-white spotted cocker spaniel. He said: “And our little girl Tricia, the six year old, named it ‘Checkers.’ And you know, the kids, like all kids, love the dog, and I just want to say this, right now, that regardless of what they say about it, we’re going to keep it.” This speech, which was simulcast on radio, won the hearts of many voters. © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.
Part Nine: Conclusion © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.

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55 © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc.


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