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The Age of Containment, 1946-1954 © 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved. Chapter 27.

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Presentation on theme: "The Age of Containment, 1946-1954 © 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved. Chapter 27."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Age of Containment, © 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved. Chapter 27

2 Creating a National Security State, Alliance between Soviet Union and the United States was not based on collaboration, but on cooperative defeat of Axis powers Relations between the two countries descended into suspicion and growing tensions (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

3 Onset of the Cold War Interpretations of Cold War’s origins –Traditional: Soviet expansion and desire to spread Communism –Revisionists: U.S. threatened Soviets into the Cold War –Rival interests made Cold War inevitable Harry S. Truman Joseph Stalin Potsdam Conference (1945) Baruch Plan Soviet sphere of influence in Eastern Europe “National security” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

4 Containment Abroad: The Truman Doctrine Truman Doctrine (1947) “Containment" –George F. Kennan –“X” article in Foreign Affairs (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

5 Truman’s Loyalty Program Executive Order 9835 –Containment on the home front –loyalty boards "Venona files" (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

6 The National Security Act, The Marshall Plan, and the Berlin Crisis National Security Act (1947) –Department of Defense –Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) Marshall Plan –George C. Marshall Berlin Blockade and Airlift ( ) “Two Germanys” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

7 The Election of 1948 Progressive Party –Henry A. Wallace State's Rights Party ("Dixiecrats") –Strom Thurmond 80 th Congress Thomas E. Dewey Democratic victory and formula for success –New Deal Coalition –Truman looked strong on National Security (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

8 The Korean War Era, Cold war crises erupted and led to warfare in Korea (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

9 NATO, China, and the Bomb North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) –Robert Taft’s opposition China –Jiang Jieshi –Mao Zedong –Formosa (Taiwan) Soviet atomic bomb “Hydrogen bomb” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

10 NSC-68 National Security Council document 68 (NSC-68) –Paul Nitze –A blueprint for both the rhetoric and strategy of future cold war foreign policy –Global ideological clash between U.S. “freedom” and Soviet “slavery” –Contain Soviet expansion more aggressively, no negotiations –Massive military buildup (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

11 The Korean War North Korea vs. South Korea United Nations involvement Douglas MacArthur Inchon Beyond the 38 th parallel Chinese intervention MacArthur fired (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

12 Korea and Containment American Cold War alliances in Asia –Japanese-American Security Pact –U.S. bases in the Middle East –ANZUS –Aid to French in retaking Indo-China “Campaign of Truth” Atomic Energy Commission RAND “The militarization of American life” U.S. opposes left-wing movements globally (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

13 Containment at Home Late 1940s to Mid-1950s: –Americans in debate over how to counter alleged communist influences at home –“Witchhunts” or “Red-baiting” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

14 Anticommunism and the Labor Movement Increased labor militancy after WWII Labor-Management Relations Act (1947) –Taft-Hartley Act CIO expulsion of Communist tainted unions (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

15 HUAC and the Loyalty Program House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) –"Hollywood ten“ –“Naming names” Richard Nixon –Whittaker Chambers –Alger Hiss FBI investigations of artists and intellectuals –W. E. B. Du Bois –Ernest Hemingway McCarran-Walter Act (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

16 Targeting Difference Alfred Kinsey –Kinsey Report (1948) Mattachine Society (1950) Daughters of Bilitis (1955) Anti-homosexuality and anti-Communism merge (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

17 “The Great Fear” Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Dennis v. US (1951) McCarran Internal Security Act (1950) –Subversive Activities Control Board (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

18 McCarthyism Joseph McCarthy –"McCarthyism” Millard Tydings (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

19 Domestic Policy: Truman’s Fair Deal FDR’s “Second Bill of Rights” Opposition –National Association of Manufacturers –Southern Democrats –Republicans (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

20 The Employment Act of 1946 and the Promise of Economic Growth Employment Act (1946) –Council of Economic Advisors Keynesian say government can end boom-and- bust cycles “Gross national product” American economic growth linked to development in the world and all-pervasive concern with national security (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

21 Truman’s Fair Deal Fair Deal: Truman’s expansion of the New Deal Serviceman's Readjustment Act (1944) –GI Bill of Rights Social Security Act of 1950 National Health Insurance –American Medical Association –Hill-Burton Act Housing Act (1949) Reality of Fair deal was to target specific groups (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

22 Civil Rights Civil rights committee (1946) –“To Secure These Rights” Dixiecrats Military desgregation (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

23 Fair Deal Summary New Deal hope of comprehensive socioeconomic planning gives way to Fair Deal view of uninterrupted economic growth Fair Deal accepts “partial remedies” rather than the “curealls” of FDR’s “Second Bill of Rights”

24 A Changing Culture Postwar years were time of dramatic change Americans created change with progress Simultaneously, change was unsettling (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

25 Jackie Robinson and the Baseball “Color Line” Jackie Robinson (1947) –Brooklyn Dodgers –National League Rookie of the Year (1947) (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

26 Suburban Development Levittown, New York Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Mortgage interest tax deduction “Baby boom” “White flight” Loans to women could not receive guarantees (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

27 Allure and Danger: Women on Film Film Noir The File on Thelma Jordan Fear of Communism reinforces conformity

28 (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved Estimated Median Age at First Marriage,

29 The Baby Boom (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

30 From Truman to Eisenhower Truman declines to run Democrats on the defensive (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

31 The Election of 1952 Democratic nominee Adlai Stevenson Republican ticket: Dwight D. Eisenhower and Richard Nixon –Criticized over Korean War –“Korea, corruption, and communism” (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved

32 A Soldier-President West Point graduate, career military man Defeat Conservative Robert Taft for Republican nomination Republicans retake Congress Solid Democratic South slipping

33 Conclusion Domestic and foreign policies were dominated by containment of communism Government power expanded Truman administration –Korean war, 1950 –Cold war climate –Fair Deal promises guaranteed economic growth Eisenhower elected, 1952 –Broad personal appeal more than imminent end of Democratic coalition (c) 2003 Wadsworth Group All rights reserved


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