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1 What do you do when a friend is accused?
Cold War Conflicts What do you do when a friend is accused?

2 Origins of the Cold War Main Idea
The U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged from WW II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems. Why it Matters Today After WW II, differences between the U.S. and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost to the 21st century. 2 2

3 Examine the Issues Do Americans with communist beliefs pose a threat to the nation? What can individual citizens do to protect the rights of all people? Should citizens speak out to preserve the rights of others?

4 Former Allies Clash The U.S. and the Soviet Union had very different ambitions for the future. These differences created a tension that plunged the two countries into a bitter rivalry. The United Nations April 25, nations met in S.F. June 26, UN is chartered Truman Becomes President The Postdam Conference U.S., G.B., Soviet Union met in Postdam Soviets block free elections

5 POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin

6 UN vs. NATO? What’s the difference between the UN and NATO?
The UN (United Nations) is a international organization of every recognized state, created to keep the peace between nations and create international law and cooperation. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is a military alliance of the United States, Canada and most of Europe, created back in the Cold War to counter Soviet and Communist power. It now consists of 26 nations.

7 U.S. Aims vs. Soviet Aims The Soviet Union… The US wanted to…
Encourage communism Rebuild Eastern Europe w/industrial equipment & raw materials Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe Keep Germany divided, so it wouldn’t be a threat The US wanted to… A New World order Gain access to raw materials and markets Rebuild European governments for American goods Reunite Germany

8 Tension Mounts Stalin’s refusal to allow free elections in Poland convinced Truman that U.S. and Soviet aims were deeply at odds.

9 Europe after World War II

10 Cold War in Europe The conflicting U.S. and Soviet aims in Eastern Europe led to the Cold War, a conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, in which neither nation conflicted each other on the battlefield. The Truman Doctrine Truman asked Congress for $400 million to help Greece and Turkey. US policy to help free people who are resisting communist takeover The Marshall Plan George Marshall, Sec. of State The U.S. to provide aid to all European nations that needed it. countries received some $13 billion in aid

11 Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948-1952

12 Superpowers Struggle over Germany
As Europe began to get back on its feet, the U.S. and its allies clashed with the Soviet Union over the issue of German reunification.

13 Improve your knowledge
Divided Berlin Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.


15 Origins of the Cold War Review
What were the goals of U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War? To encourage democracy; to gain access to raw materials and markets; to rebuild Europe; to contain Soviet expansion. Describe the Truman doctrine and how America reacted to it. A policy of helping countries resist Communist takeover; strongly supported by Americans.

16 The Cold War Heats Up Main Idea
After World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was into a communist north and a democratic south. Why it Matters Today Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States


18 China Becomes a Communist Country
For two decades, Chinese communist had struggled against the nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek. The U.S. had supported Chiang during WWII. Chiang’s government undermined Nationalist support. Mao Zedong gained support of communism throughout the country.

19 Renewed Civil War As soon as the defeated Japanese left China at the end of WW II, cooperation between the Nationalists and the Communists ceased. From , the U.S. played the peacemaker while supporting the Nationalists. May Chiang and others fled to the Island of Taiwan or Formosa. China became a communist country, which was called the People’s Republic of China. America Reacts to Communist Takeover Conservative Republicans blamed Truman for only supplying limited aid.


21 The Korean War As WW II ended, Japanese troops north of the 38th parallel surrendered to the Soviets. South of the parallel they surrendered to the Americans. U.S. cuts back on troops in South Korea Soviets backed North Korea North Korea attacks South Korea June 25, North Korean forces swept across the 38th parallel in a surprise attack on South Korea U.N. backs South Korea 16 nations sent 520,000 troops; 90% were Americans Under the command of Gen. Douglas MacArthur

22 The Korean War,

23 The U.S. Fights in Korea At first, North Korea seemed unstoppable.

24 The Cold War Heats Up Review
What global events led to U.S. involvement in Korea? Communist victory in China; North Korea’s attack on South Korea What issue between General Douglas MacArthur and President Truman eventually cost MacArthur his job? Truman wanted limit the Korean War to Korea. MacArthur wanted to bomb and invade China.

25 Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations.
The Cold War at Home Main Idea During the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens. Why it Matters Today Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations.

26 Fear of Communism In the early years of the Cold War, many Americans believed that there was good reason to be concerned about the security of the U.S. During WW II, there were about 80,000 Americans that claimed membership in the Communist party.


28 Spy Cases Stun the Nation
Two spy cases added to fear that was spreading like an epidemic across the country: Alger Hiss 1948- former Communist spy Whitaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of spying for the Soviet Union. Hiss proclaims his innocence. Richard Nixon pursues the charges The Rosenbergs Soviets exploded an atomic bomb on Sept. 3, 1949 1950- German-born Klaus Fuchs admitted giving information about atomic bomb to Soviets Ethel and Julius Rosenberg-American Communist Party Found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death

29 McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt”
The most famous anti-Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican from Wisconsin.

30 The Cold War Review What actions of Joseph McCarthy worsened the national hysteria about communism? McCarthy’s allegation of Communists in government and in the armed forces. How did the Rosenberg case fuel anti-communist feelings? The Rosenberg case involved transfer of nuclear secrets to the Soviets; Americans feared any Soviet influence in the U.S. and their possession of nuclear weapons.

31 Two Nations Live on the Edge
Main Idea During the 1950’s, the U.S. and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war. Why it Matter Today The Cold War continued into the following decades, affecting U.S. policies in Cuba, Central America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.

32 Brinkmanship Rules U.S. Policy
The nuclear arms race began during Truman’s presidency. Soviets exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949. Race for the H-Bomb Hydrogen Bomb “H-Bomb” 67 times stronger than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima U.S. vs. Soviet Union in a race Nov. 1, U.S. wins, exploded the 1st H-Bomb Policy of Brinkmanship Dwight D. Eisenhower-President John Foster Dulles-Sec. of State Dulles wanted to use all force , including nuclear weapons, against any aggressor Brinkmanship- a policy of all out war Army & Navy scaled down and the Air Force increased. Schoolchildren practiced air-raids procedures Families built fallout shelters

33 Improve your knowledge
The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.


35 The Cold War Spreads Around the World
As the nation shifted to a dependence on nuclear arms, the Eisenhower administration began to rely heavily on the recently formed Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for information. Covert Actions in the Middle East & Latin America 1951-Mohammed Mossadegh nationalized Iran’s oil fields Great Britain stopped buying Iranian oil 1953- CIA gave millions of $ to anti-Mossadegh supporters. CIA supported the Shah of Iran 1954-Guatemala

36 Cold War Spreads Around the World- cont’

37 The Eisenhower Doctrine
Jan U.S. would defend the Middle East against an attack by any Communist country. The Hungarian Uprising Hungarians revolted in 1956 Imre Nagy-Communist leader promised free elections Nov Soviets send in troops Soviets overthrow Nagy and place Soviet leaders in charge. U.S. did nothing to help Hungary

38 The Cold War Takes to the Skies
Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader in the Soviet Union upon Stalin’s death in 1953. Khrushchev wanted a peaceful coexistence.


40 Two Nations Live on the Edge Review
How did the U.S., including the CIA, wage the Cold War in the 1950’s? By sponsoring covert actions to overthrow governments unfriendly to the United States.

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