Presentation on theme: "What do you do when a friend is accused?"— Presentation transcript:
1What do you do when a friend is accused? Cold War ConflictsWhat do you do when a friend is accused?
2Origins of the Cold War Main Idea The U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged from WW II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems.Why it Matters TodayAfter WW II, differences between the U.S. and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost to the 21st century.22
3Examine the IssuesDo Americans with communist beliefs pose a threat to the nation?What can individual citizens do to protect the rights of all people?Should citizens speak out to preserve the rights of others?
4Former Allies ClashThe U.S. and the Soviet Union had very different ambitions for the future. These differences created a tension that plunged the two countries into a bitter rivalry.The United NationsApril 25, nations met in S.F.June 26, UN is charteredTruman Becomes PresidentThe Postdam ConferenceU.S., G.B., Soviet Union met in PostdamSoviets block free elections
5POTSDAM (Germany)Date: July 1945Present: Churchill,Truman and Stalin
6UN vs. NATO? What’s the difference between the UN and NATO? The UN (United Nations) is a international organization of every recognized state, created to keep the peace between nations and create international law and cooperation. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is a military alliance of the United States, Canada and most of Europe, created back in the Cold War to counter Soviet and Communist power. It now consists of 26 nations.
7U.S. Aims vs. Soviet Aims The Soviet Union… The US wanted to… Encourage communismRebuild Eastern Europe w/industrial equipment & raw materialsControl Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western EuropeKeep Germany divided, so it wouldn’t be a threatThe US wanted to…A New World orderGain access to raw materials and marketsRebuild European governments for American goodsReunite Germany
8Tension MountsStalin’s refusal to allow free elections in Poland convinced Truman that U.S. and Soviet aims were deeply at odds.
10Cold War in EuropeThe conflicting U.S. and Soviet aims in Eastern Europe led to the Cold War, a conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, in which neither nation conflicted each other on the battlefield.The Truman DoctrineTruman asked Congress for $400 million to help Greece and Turkey.US policy to help free people who are resisting communist takeoverThe Marshall PlanGeorge Marshall, Sec. of StateThe U.S. to provide aid to all European nations that needed it.countries received some $13 billion in aid
12Superpowers Struggle over Germany As Europe began to get back on its feet, the U.S. and its allies clashed with the Soviet Union over the issue of German reunification.
13Improve your knowledge Divided BerlinImprove your knowledgeThe Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
15Origins of the Cold War Review What were the goals of U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War?To encourage democracy; to gain access to raw materials and markets; to rebuild Europe; to contain Soviet expansion.Describe the Truman doctrine and how America reacted to it.A policy of helping countries resist Communist takeover; strongly supported by Americans.
16The Cold War Heats Up Main Idea After World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was into a communist north and a democratic south.Why it Matters TodayOngoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States
18China Becomes a Communist Country For two decades, Chinese communist had struggled against the nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek.The U.S. had supported Chiang during WWII.Chiang’s government undermined Nationalist support.Mao Zedong gained support of communism throughout the country.
19Renewed Civil WarAs soon as the defeated Japanese left China at the end of WW II, cooperation between the Nationalists and the Communists ceased.From , the U.S. played the peacemaker while supporting the Nationalists.May Chiang and others fled to the Island of Taiwan or Formosa.China became a communist country, which was called the People’s Republic of China.America Reacts to Communist TakeoverConservative Republicans blamed Truman for only supplying limited aid.
21The Korean WarAs WW II ended, Japanese troops north of the 38th parallel surrendered to the Soviets. South of the parallel they surrendered to the Americans.U.S. cuts back on troops in South KoreaSoviets backed North KoreaNorth Korea attacks South KoreaJune 25, North Korean forces swept across the 38th parallel in a surprise attack on South KoreaU.N. backs South Korea16 nations sent 520,000 troops; 90% were AmericansUnder the command of Gen. Douglas MacArthur
23The U.S. Fights in KoreaAt first, North Korea seemed unstoppable.
24The Cold War Heats Up Review What global events led to U.S. involvement in Korea?Communist victory in China; North Korea’s attack on South KoreaWhat issue between General Douglas MacArthur and President Truman eventually cost MacArthur his job?Truman wanted limit the Korean War to Korea. MacArthur wanted to bomb and invade China.
25Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations. The Cold War at HomeMain IdeaDuring the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens.Why it Matters TodayAmericans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations.
26Fear of CommunismIn the early years of the Cold War, many Americans believed that there was good reason to be concerned about the security of the U.S.During WW II, there were about 80,000 Americans that claimed membership in the Communist party.
28Spy Cases Stun the Nation Two spy cases added to fear that was spreading like an epidemic across the country:Alger Hiss1948- former Communist spy Whitaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of spying for the Soviet Union.Hiss proclaims his innocence.Richard Nixon pursues the chargesThe RosenbergsSoviets exploded an atomic bomb on Sept. 3, 19491950- German-born Klaus Fuchs admitted giving information about atomic bomb to SovietsEthel and Julius Rosenberg-American Communist PartyFound guilty of espionage and sentenced to death
29McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt” The most famous anti-Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican from Wisconsin.
30The Cold War ReviewWhat actions of Joseph McCarthy worsened the national hysteria about communism?McCarthy’s allegation of Communists in government and in the armed forces.How did the Rosenberg case fuel anti-communist feelings?The Rosenberg case involved transfer of nuclear secrets to the Soviets; Americans feared any Soviet influence in the U.S. and their possession of nuclear weapons.
31Two Nations Live on the Edge Main IdeaDuring the 1950’s, the U.S. and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war.Why it Matter TodayThe Cold War continued into the following decades, affecting U.S. policies in Cuba, Central America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.
32Brinkmanship Rules U.S. Policy The nuclear arms race began during Truman’s presidency.Soviets exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949.Race for the H-BombHydrogen Bomb “H-Bomb”67 times stronger than the bomb dropped on HiroshimaU.S. vs. Soviet Union in a raceNov. 1, U.S. wins, exploded the 1st H-BombPolicy of BrinkmanshipDwight D. Eisenhower-PresidentJohn Foster Dulles-Sec. of StateDulles wanted to use all force , including nuclear weapons, against any aggressorBrinkmanship- a policy of all out warArmy & Navy scaled down and the Air Force increased.Schoolchildren practiced air-raids proceduresFamilies built fallout shelters
33Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post-war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
35The Cold War Spreads Around the World As the nation shifted to a dependence on nuclear arms, the Eisenhower administration began to rely heavily on the recently formed Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for information.Covert Actions in the Middle East & Latin America1951-Mohammed Mossadegh nationalized Iran’s oil fieldsGreat Britain stopped buying Iranian oil1953- CIA gave millions of $ to anti-Mossadegh supporters.CIA supported the Shah of Iran1954-Guatemala
37The Eisenhower Doctrine Jan U.S. would defend the Middle East against an attack by any Communist country.The Hungarian UprisingHungarians revolted in 1956Imre Nagy-Communist leader promised free electionsNov Soviets send in troopsSoviets overthrow Nagy and place Soviet leaders in charge.U.S. did nothing to help Hungary
38The Cold War Takes to the Skies Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader in the Soviet Union upon Stalin’s death in 1953.Khrushchev wanted a peaceful coexistence.