Presentation on theme: "Cold War Conflicts What do you do when a friend is accused?"— Presentation transcript:
Cold War Conflicts What do you do when a friend is accused?
Origins of the Cold War Main Idea The U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged from WW II as two “superpowers” with vastly different political and economic systems. Why it Matters Today After WW II, differences between the U.S. and the Soviet Union led to a Cold War that lasted almost to the 21 st century.
Examine the Issues Do Americans with communist beliefs pose a threat to the nation? What can individual citizens do to protect the rights of all people? Should citizens speak out to preserve the rights of others?
Former Allies Clash The U.S. and the Soviet Union had very different ambitions for the future. These differences created a tension that plunged the two countries into a bitter rivalry. The United Nations –April 25, 1945-50 nations met in S.F. –June 26, 1945- UN is chartered Truman Becomes President The Postdam Conference –U.S., G.B., Soviet Union met in Postdam –Soviets block free elections
POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
UN vs. NATO? What’s the difference between the UN and NATO? The UN (United Nations) is a international organization of every recognized state, created to keep the peace between nations and create international law and cooperation. NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is a military alliance of the United States, Canada and most of Europe, created back in the Cold War to counter Soviet and Communist power. It now consists of 26 nations.
U.S. Aims vs. Soviet Aims The US wanted to… –A New World order –Gain access to raw materials and markets –Rebuild European governments for American goods –Reunite Germany The Soviet Union… –Encourage communism –Rebuild Eastern Europe w/industrial equipment & raw materials –Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe –Keep Germany divided, so it wouldn’t be a threat
Tension Mounts Stalin’s refusal to allow free elections in Poland convinced Truman that U.S. and Soviet aims were deeply at odds. Tension Mounts Bargaining At Postdam Reparations U.S. interest abroad Soviets Grip Eastern Europe Satellite nations U.S Containment George F. Kennan Stop the spread of Communism “Iron Curtain”
Europe after World War II
Cold War in Europe The conflicting U.S. and Soviet aims in Eastern Europe led to the Cold War, a conflict between the U.S. and the Soviet Union, in which neither nation conflicted each other on the battlefield. The Truman Doctrine –Truman asked Congress for $400 million to help Greece and Turkey. –US policy to help free people who are resisting communist takeover The Marshall Plan –George Marshall, Sec. of State –The U.S. to provide aid to all European nations that needed it. –1948-1952- 16 countries received some $13 billion in aid
Marshall Plan to Aid Europe, 1948-1952
Superpowers Struggle over Germany As Europe began to get back on its feet, the U.S. and its allies clashed with the Soviet Union over the issue of German reunification. Berlin Airlift NATO Alliance
Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May 1945. They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.
Origins of the Cold War Review What were the goals of U.S. foreign policy in the Cold War? –To encourage democracy; to gain access to raw materials and markets; to rebuild Europe; to contain Soviet expansion. Describe the Truman doctrine and how America reacted to it. –A policy of helping countries resist Communist takeover; strongly supported by Americans.
The Cold War Heats Up Main Idea After World War II, China became a communist nation and Korea was into a communist north and a democratic south. Why it Matters Today Ongoing tensions with China and North Korea continue to involve the United States
China Becomes a Communist Country For two decades, Chinese communist had struggled against the nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek. The U.S. had supported Chiang during WWII. Chiang’s government undermined Nationalist support. Mao Zedong gained support of communism throughout the country.
Renewed Civil War As soon as the defeated Japanese left China at the end of WW II, cooperation between the Nationalists and the Communists ceased. From 1944-1947, the U.S. played the peacemaker while supporting the Nationalists. May 1949- Chiang and others fled to the Island of Taiwan or Formosa. China became a communist country, which was called the People’s Republic of China. America Reacts to Communist Takeover –Conservative Republicans blamed Truman for only supplying limited aid.
The Korean War As WW II ended, Japanese troops north of the 38 th parallel surrendered to the Soviets. South of the parallel they surrendered to the Americans. U.S. cuts back on troops in South Korea Soviets backed North Korea North Korea attacks South Korea –June 25, 1950- North Korean forces swept across the 38 th parallel in a surprise attack on South Korea –U.N. backs South Korea –16 nations sent 520,000 troops; 90% were Americans –Under the command of Gen. Douglas MacArthur
The Korean War, 1950-1953
The U.S. Fights in Korea At first, North Korea seemed unstoppable. Korean War MacArthur’s Counterattack Chinese Fight Back Recommendation To Attack China MacArthur Vs Truman Stalemate
The Cold War Heats Up Review What global events led to U.S. involvement in Korea? –Communist victory in China; North Korea’s attack on South Korea What issue between General Douglas MacArthur and President Truman eventually cost MacArthur his job? –Truman wanted limit the Korean War to Korea. MacArthur wanted to bomb and invade China.
The Cold War at Home Main Idea During the late 1940’s and early 1950’s, fear of communism led to reckless charges against innocent citizens. Why it Matters Today Americans today remain vigilant about unfounded accusations.
Fear of Communism In the early years of the Cold War, many Americans believed that there was good reason to be concerned about the security of the U.S. During WW II, there were about 80,000 Americans that claimed membership in the Communist party. Fear of Communism Loyalty Review Board Investigate Gov. employees House UN-American Activities Comm. Communist influence In the movie industry 1947- Hollywood Ten “Blacklist” McCarran Act Unlawful to establish a Totalitarian gov. in the U.S.
Spy Cases Stun the Nation Two spy cases added to fear that was spreading like an epidemic across the country: Alger Hiss –1948- former Communist spy Whitaker Chambers accused Alger Hiss of spying for the Soviet Union. –Hiss proclaims his innocence. –Richard Nixon pursues the charges The Rosenbergs –Soviets exploded an atomic bomb on Sept. 3, 1949 –1950- German-born Klaus Fuchs admitted giving information about atomic bomb to Soviets –Ethel and Julius Rosenberg-American Communist Party –Found guilty of espionage and sentenced to death
McCarthy Launches His “Witch Hunt” The most famous anti-Communist activist was Senator Joseph McCarthy, a Republican from Wisconsin. McCarthyism McCarthy’s Tactics Accusations Of Communist in the State Dept. McCarthy’s Downfall 1954-Accusations against the U.S. Army Other Communist Measures 1953-39 states passed laws Making it illegal to advocate The overthrow of Gov.
The Cold War Review What actions of Joseph McCarthy worsened the national hysteria about communism? –McCarthy’s allegation of Communists in government and in the armed forces. How did the Rosenberg case fuel anti- communist feelings? –The Rosenberg case involved transfer of nuclear secrets to the Soviets; Americans feared any Soviet influence in the U.S. and their possession of nuclear weapons.
Two Nations Live on the Edge Main Idea During the 1950’s, the U.S. and the Soviet Union came to the brink of nuclear war. Why it Matter Today The Cold War continued into the following decades, affecting U.S. policies in Cuba, Central America, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East.
Brinkmanship Rules U.S. Policy The nuclear arms race began during Truman’s presidency. Soviets exploded its first atomic bomb in 1949. Race for the H-Bomb –Hydrogen Bomb “H-Bomb” –67 times stronger than the bomb dropped on Hiroshima –U.S. vs. Soviet Union in a race –Nov. 1, 1952- U.S. wins, exploded the 1 st H-Bomb Policy of Brinkmanship –Dwight D. Eisenhower-President –John Foster Dulles-Sec. of State Dulles wanted to use all force, including nuclear weapons, against any aggressor –Brinkmanship- a policy of all out war Army & Navy scaled down and the Air Force increased. –Schoolchildren practiced air-raids procedures –Families built fallout shelters
Improve your knowledge The nuclear bomb gave America a lead which was expected to last at least 5 years. The rapid Russian development of nuclear technology, helped by the work of the “atom spies” was a shock. Significantly, Russia hurriedly declared war against Japan at the beginning of August 1945 and rushed to advance into Asia to stake out a position for the post- war settlement. This helped make both the Korean and Vietnamese conflicts more likely.
The Cold War Spreads Around the World As the nation shifted to a dependence on nuclear arms, the Eisenhower administration began to rely heavily on the recently formed Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) for information. Covert Actions in the Middle East & Latin America –1951-Mohammed Mossadegh nationalized Iran’s oil fields –Great Britain stopped buying Iranian oil –1953- CIA gave millions of $ to anti-Mossadegh supporters. –CIA supported the Shah of Iran –1954-Guatemala
Cold War Spreads Around the World- cont’ Cold War Warsaw Pact 1955 Linked Soviet Union With 7 other countries Geneva 1955 “Open Skies” Suez War 1955 Aswan Dam Gamel Abdel- Nasser GB, FR, & Israel
The Eisenhower Doctrine –J–Jan. 1957- U.S. would defend the Middle East against an attack by any Communist country. The Hungarian Uprising –H–Hungarians revolted in 1956 –I–Imre Nagy-Communist leader promised free elections –N–Nov. 1956- Soviets send in troops –S–Soviets overthrow Nagy and place Soviet leaders in charge. –U–U.S. did nothing to help Hungary
The Cold War Takes to the Skies Nikita Khrushchev became the new leader in the Soviet Union upon Stalin’s death in 1953. Khrushchev wanted a peaceful coexistence. The Space Race Sputnik U-2 Shot Down Francis Gary Powers Renewed Confrontation
Two Nations Live on the Edge Review How did the U.S., including the CIA, wage the Cold War in the 1950’s? –By sponsoring covert actions to overthrow governments unfriendly to the United States.