3Germany & Japan Transformed Both Germany and Japan had been physically and socially devastated by World War II.The victorious Allied powers occupied the two countries, establishing democratic governments.Germany was deeply shaken by the experience of the Holocaust.Today, Germany’s relationship with the nation of Israel is very friendly-both share strong diplomatic, economic, and cultural ties.There has also been an attempt to compensate financially some of the victims of the Holocaust.
5At the end of WWII, Germany was divided into four zones of occupation controlled by England, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States.Berlin, the German capital, was located in the Russian sector and also divided into four sectors, each occupied by one of the four Allies.
10Disagreements during this period of occupation marked the beginning of the Cold War. The Cold War was a period of tension between the United States and the Soviet Union.This tension would ultimately last from the end of World War II to 1990.VS
12WRONG COLD!This tension between the Soviet Union and the United States was a result of differences in political and economic thinking.In particular, the democratic, capitalist United States and the communist Soviet Union.It was a “cold” war because armed battle between the superpowers did not occur.
13The western powers feared the spread of communism. Stalin had forced pro-communist governments in Poland, Czechoslovakia, and elsewhere.When Stalin began to put pressure on Greece and Turkey, the United States took action.
15In his 1946 speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri, Prime Minister Winston Churchill of Great Britain cautioned the world about the threat of communist expansion.Churchill’s phrase “Iron Curtain” was in reference to the recognizable division between the free Western Europe and the communist Eastern Europe.
17In March of 1947, United States President Harry S In March of 1947, United States President Harry S. Truman established a policy known as the Truman Doctrine.This was an economic and military program designed to strengthen democratic governments and lesson the appeal of communism.
18It was based on the theory of containment, which involved limiting communism to areas already under Soviet control.The United States pledged to resist Soviet expansion anywhere in the world.Truman sent military and economic aid to Greece and Turkey so that they could resist the threat of communism.
20The Marshall Plan, also proposed in 1947, was a massive economic aid package designed to strengthen democratic governments and lesson the appeal of communism.Billions of American dollars helped Western European countries recover from World War II.
21Although the United States also offered this aid to Eastern Europe, Stalin forbade these countries to accept it.
23The division of Germany into four zones after World War II was supposed to be temporary. Soon Britain, France, and the United States had combined their democratically ruled zones.Tension grew between democratic western Germany and Soviet-controlled eastern Germany.
24Germany became a major focus of Cold War tension. The Allies were trying to rebuild the German economy, but Stalin (Soviet Union) feared a strong, united Germany.
25Berlin, the divided capital, was located entirely in East Germany.
26In 1948, Stalin hoped to force the Allies out of Berlin by closing all land routes for bringing essential supplies (food, medicine, etc.) to West Berlin.In response to the crisis, the western powers mounted a successful airlift.
27For almost a year, food and supplies were flown into West Berlin. Finally, the Soviets ended the blockade.
37With aid from the Marshall Plan, Western European countries recovered quickly from World War II. The countries promoted their own prosperity through cooperation.The Common Market-In 1957, France, West Germany, Belgium, Italy, the Netherlands, and Luxemburg formed the European Community (EC) or Common Market to expand free trade.European Union-The EC expanded further and became the European Union (EU) with 25 member states by 2004, introducing the new currency, the euro.
39As the Cold War intensified Japan rebounded rapidly from the economic devastation that followed World War II.Japan sent many manufactured items to other countries, building a favorable balance of trade.A country that has a favorable balance of trade-exports more goods than it imports.As Japanese industry prospered, the nation engaged in increased trade with the United States.
44Fencing the border was originally proposed as an effort to stem the flow of illegal migrants and drug runners.Currently, the fence proposal is meeting extensive opposition within Congress and by environmentalists and human-rights activists.
48North Atlantic Treaty Organization, NATO After the Berlin airlift and the division of West Germany from East Germany, Western European countries formed a military alliance.This alliance was called the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, or NATO.
49Members of NATO pledged to support each other if any member nation was ever attacked.
50The Warsaw Pact In 1955, the Soviet Union formed the Warsaw Pact. It included the Soviet Union and seven of its satellites (Soviet controlled countries) in Eastern Europe.This was also a defensive alliance, promising mutual military cooperation.
53Both the United States and the Soviet Union armed themselves militarily, each preparing to withstand an attack from the other.The United States had developed the atomic bomb during World War II; Soviet scientists developed their own in 1949.
54For 40 years, the two superpowers spent great amounts of money to develop more and more powerful weapons.The arms race raised the level of tension between the superpowers.It also raised fears among many people that the superpowers might become involved in a conflict that would destroy the world.
57Nuclear Weapons: Who had what, when, and how many Nation/Year194519551965197519851995UnitedStates63,05731,26526,67522,94114,766U.S.S.R.2006,12919,44339,19727,000Britain10310350300France32188360485China5185425
58Today’s (2007) Nuclear Warhead #’s These are merely the reported and known number of nuclear weapons.United States-10,455Russia-8,400China-400France-350Israel-250England-200India-65Pakistan-40North Korea-8Total (known)-20,168
61The superpowers also competed in space. In 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, a satellite, into orbit around the earth.Congress soon established NASA, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, to improve American space technology.
62In 1958, the United States launched its own first satellite. In 1961, the Soviets sent the first man into space.Then in 1969, the United States was the first nation to put a man on the moon.
68In 1950 the Soviet backed North Korea invaded the U. S In 1950 the Soviet backed North Korea invaded the U.S. backed South Korea in an attempt to reunify the Korean peninsula.United States President Truman responded to this invasion by committing American troops to the war effort.
69When Chinese forces entered the war in order to support the communist North Koreans the conflict reached a stalemate.On July 27, 1953 a ceasefire was formally reached creating the current border and DMZ along the 38th parallel.
70The war in Korea lasted for more than three years and cost more than $15 billion. Approximately 34,000 Americans and 1 million Koreans and Chinese died in the conflict.
73The Vietnam War erupted unofficially in 1959, officially in 1962, when the Soviet and China backed North Vietnam forces invaded U.S. backed South Vietnam in an effort to reunify the country under communist control.
74The Vietnam conflict was the longest war in US history (11 years) The conflict officially ended on April when U.S. forces evacuated Saigon as it was being overrun by North Vietnam communist forces.
75"War" on North Vietnam was never officially declared by the United States. A Cornell University study placed the over-all total U.S. cost of the Vietnam conflict at $200 Billion.Bomb tonnage dropped during the Vietnam conflict amounted to 1,000 lbs. for every man, woman and child in Vietnam.An estimated 70,000 draft evaders and "dodgers" were living in Canada by 1972.
76An estimated 3 million people were killed by the war, and over 1 million were wounded. A total of 47,413 U.S. military forces were killed in during the duration of the Vietnam conflict.
78The Invasion of Czechoslovakia Another rebellion against Soviet domination occurred in Czechoslovakia in the spring of 1968.Alexander Dubcek called for liberal reforms and the easing of communist controls.In response, the Soviet Union sent troops to overturn the government and restore a communist dictatorship.
82As of 2/22/09 4,247 U.S. soldiers have been killed in the Iraq War. 31,010 U.S. soldiers have been seriously wounded.
83Estimated Iraqi Civilians Killed A United Nation’s issued report datedSept 20, 2006 stated that Iraqi civilian causalities have been significantly under-reported.▪ Casualties are reported at 50,000 to over 100,000, but may be much higher.▪ Documented civilian deaths range between 90,077 to 90,735.
84Journalists killed - 95 (59 by murder and 36 by acts of war.) Iraqi Insurgents Killed, Roughly Estimated - 55,000Non-Iraqi Contractors and Civilian Workers Killed - 514
85Current cost of the Iraq War… …505 billion of US taxpayers' dollars.The president has requested another $100 billion in war spending for 2007 and $140 billion for 2008.This would bring the cumulative total for the Iraq War to be over 700 billion U.S. taxpayers dollars.
87QUALITY OF LIFE INDICATORS Iraqi Unemployment Rate - 27 to 60%, where curfew not in effectConsumer Price Inflation in %Iraqi Children Suffering from Chronic Malnutrition - 25% in May 2006Iraqis Displaced by Iraq War, as of Nov ,000Iraqi Refugees in Syria & Jordan million to 1.75 millionPercent of professionals who have left Iraq since %
88Iraqi Physicians Before 2003 Invasion - 34,000 Iraqi Physicians Who Have Left Iraq Since 2005 Invasion - 12,000Iraqi Physicians Murdered Since 2003 Invasion - 2,000Average Daily Hours Iraqi Homes Have ElectricityAverage Daily Hours Baghdad Homes Have Electricity - 5.9Pre-War Daily Hours Baghdad Homes Have Electricity - 16 to 24Number of Iraqi Homes Connected to Sewer Systems - 37%Percentage of Iraqi Homes with Access to Piped Water - 78%
90Why Do You Need To Know This? Because… 357 U.S. military forces have been killed in Afghanistan.1,071 U.S. military forces have been seriously wounded in Afghanistan.As of 2006, the total amount appropriated for military operations in Afghanistan has been $83 billion.
92Oil became the most important energy resource after World War II. Global economic interdependence is shown in the crisis, both past and present, that have developed over oil.Much of the world’s oil comes from the Middle East.
93The Formation of OPECIn 1960, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and Venezuela formed OPEC, whose initials stand for the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.OPEC’s goal was to control the oil industry by setting production levels and prices.
94OPEC and Oil CrisesIn 1973, OPEC nations halted exports of oil to certain countries.Egypt and Israel were at war, and Arab countries declared the embargo against the United States and other countries that supported Israel.Prices skyrocketed, affecting western economies by slowing growth.
97DÉTENTEBy the 1970s, the Cold War had been going on for more than 25 years.Both the United States and Soviet Union realized that the tension could end in mutual destruction.Large amounts of money were spent by both powers on weapons.
98Under their leaders, Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev, the United States and the Soviet Union promoted a period of détente, or lessening of tension.Détente involved:1) Arms control talks andtreaties.2) Cultural exchanges.3) Trade agreements.
99Gorbachev in the Soviet Union Collapse of the Soviet Union
100In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. Gorbachev wanted to end Cold War tensions.He pulled troops out of Afghanistan, in which the Soviet Union invaded in 1979.Gorbachev also reformed the Soviet government and economy.
101PERESTROIKAGorbachev restructured the failing, state-run command economy in a process called perestroika.The goals were to stimulate economic growth and to make industry more efficient.Gorbachev also backed free market reforms.Perestroika also had some negative effects such as: inflation increased, and there were shortages of food and medicine.
102GLASNOST Gorbachev also called for glasnost, or openness. This policy ended censorship and encouraged people to discuss openly the problems in the Soviet Union.
103Eastern Europe Transformed Collapse of the Soviet Union
104Lech Walesa & Solidarity in Poland Throughout Eastern Europe, Gorbachev’s reforms had sparked demands for democracy and national independence.In the 1980s, in Poland, economic hardships caused labor unrest.
105Led by Lech Walesa, workers organized Solidarity, an independent trade union. With millions of members, Solidarity called for political change.At first, the Soviet Union pressured the Polish government to suppress Solidarity.
106The government outlawed the union and arrested Walesa and other leaders. However, communism’s power was weakening.International pressure as well as internal pressure led to reform.In 1989, the first free elections in 50 years were held, and Solidarity candidates won.Lech Walesa became president.
107East and West Germany United Collapse of the Soviet Union
108Since World War II, Germany had been divided into a democratic western state and a communist eastern state.The Berlin Wall had been built in 1961 to keep East Germans from fleeing to the West.
109The Fall of the Berlin Wall East Germans wanted to share in the prosperity and freedom enjoyed by West Germans.By 1989, East German leaders could no longer count on support from the Soviet Union.A rising wave of protests forced the communist government from power.
110In November 1989, the Berlin Wall was torn down by joyous Germans.
111Collapse of the Soviet Union Breakup of the U.S.S.R.Collapse of the Soviet Union
112As Gorbachev eased political restrictions, people began to voice their nationalist sentiments. In 1991, the Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania regained their independence from the Soviet Union.Soon, all the Soviet republics declared their independence.
113The Soviet Union ceased to exist. In mid-1991, communist hardliners tried to overthrow Gorbachev and his reforms.Their attempt failed, but Gorbachev soon resigned.
114Difficult Challenges for Russia… …(former Soviet Union/U.S.S.R.) Collapse of the Soviet Union
115Boris Yeltsin became the new Russian president after Gorbachev resigned. Yeltsin retired in 1999 and voters chose Vladimir Putin to succeed him.For the first time in Russian history, power passed peacefully from one elected leader to another.