Korean War Facts Starts June 25, 1950 Armistice July 27, 1953 Officially a United Nations Action UN Forces Led by the United States vs. North Korea and China 34,000 Americans Die 2.5 Million Koreans Die 500,000 Chinese Die War Never Officially Ended
Origins of the War Korea Had Been Brutal Occupied by the Japanese Until the End of WWII. Divided at the 38 th Parallel.
The Two Koreas South Korea Non-Communist Fertile Temperate Rapidly Industrialized Seoul is the Capital North Korea Communist Mountainous Cold Little Industry or Farmland
Answer??? How was Korea Divided? Where was Korea Divided?
Kim Il-Sung Communist Leader of North Korea Protégé of Stalin Close Relationships with USSR and Stalin Wants to Conquer South Korea
Back in America Strong Containment Success in Europe McCarthyism and Strong Anti-Communist Movement “Loss of China”-Truman Administration Blamed NSC-68 Debate
Truman’s Asia Policy after the Fall of China Strong Pressure to Assist Taiwan and Chiang Kai-shek Truman Administration Contemplates Not Helping Chiang Kai-shek and allowing China to Conquer Taiwan
Dean Acheson’s Speech to the National Press Club Truman’s Secretary of State January 12, 1950 Speech on US Policy in Asia Does not Mention South Korea in Outlining US Defensive Perimeter in Asia
Questions about Speech??? How will Kim Il-Sung react to South Korea not being in US Protected Zone in Asia? How might revisionists see omission in terms of NSC-68?
Situation in China Want to Invade Taiwan and Tibet Tired from Japanese Invasion in WWII and Chinese Civil War Army is weak with new soldiers from poorly trained captured Nationalists Lack of Equipment
Korean War Begins Korean War Begins on June 25, 1950 North Korea Crosses the 38 th Parallel North Korea Quickly Takes Over Almost 90% of South Korea
North Korea North Korea Wants South Korea Wants South Korean Resources Wants a Unified and Communist Korea Goes to Stalin and Mao for Support for Invasion
USSR Stalin is Close to Kim Il Sung USSR Controls Outer Mongolia and Manchuria (North of China), Control of the Korean Peninsula Would Box in China Wear Down US and Chinese Soldiers/Losses Field Test New Equipment Gather Intelligence on American Military Test Containment Make North Korea and China Dependent on Russian Arms Opportunities in Europe???
Mao and China Felt if US Enters War, China Must Enter Mao Believed Either Fight US in Korea or China Gain Arms from Soviet Union/Needs Soviet Arms for Wider Ambitions Purge Nationalists in its Army Protect Newly Declared People’s Republic of China Keep US Away from Border/Yalu River
United States Containment Protect Japan “Loss” of China Worried About Spread of Communism in Asia Lessons from Munich during WWII Monolithic Communism-China and USSR working together
Answer??? Who had most to gain? Who had most to lose?
The United Nations Truman Goes to United Nations To Create Force to Help South Korea Stop the North Korean Invasion Technically a United Nations Force vs. North Korea.
The Security Council Truman Needs Approval of United Nations Security Council USSR Has Veto Power. Why didn’t Russians Veto?
Douglas MacArthur WWII Hero Military General in Charge of American Occupation and Rebuilding of Japan Placed in Charge of UN Forces in Korea
The War After Initial North Korean Advances to Pusan American Forces Push North Korean Forces to the 38 th Parallel.
Mission Changes Truman Changes from Containing Communism to Having US Forces Cross the 38 th Parallel and Unify Korea and Defeat North Korean Regime. MacArthur Tells Truman China Will not Get Involved China Sends Word Through India to US not to Push North
China Enters the War October and November Communist China Enters the Korean War As American Forces Approach Yalu River. Mao Had Planned All Along to Enter Mao Thought USSR Would Provide Air Cover/Stalin Does Not Surprises US Forces/US Forces Retreat Below 38 th Parallel
Truman and MacArthur Truman Wants to Keep War Limited to Korea MacArthur Wants to use Nationalist Forces from Taiwan to Attack China Wants to Expand War to China Ignores Truman’s Orders to Stop Talking About Expanding War to China Truman Fires MacArthur
The Rest of the War War Eventually Reaches a Standstill at the 38 th Parallel. Armistice Signed July 27, 1953 War Ends How it Began: Divided Korea
Results of the Korean War Korea still Divided at 38 th Parallel US Contains Communism and Shows Willing to Fight in Other Countries to Do So. 35,000 Americans, 2.5 Koreans, 500,000 Koreans Killed US Strengthens Ties to Taiwan China Drops Plans to Invade Taiwan US Increases Aid to the French in Vietnam Truman’s Popularity Decreases and Does Not Run for Re-Election Dwight Eisenhower Elected to Presidency
Results of the Korean War US Places Strong Trade Embargo on Communist China Economic Strain on China Communist China was Isolated from the West. China Fights US to a Stalemate Increased Patriotism in China/Mao Has Stronger Hold of the People Rift in USSR/China Relationship
Results of the Korean War Findings of NSC-68 Accepted Massive US Military Mobilization Worldwide NATO in Europe is Strengthened Forces Stalin and Successors to Re-think Soviet Policy Towards the US