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Dwight D. Eisenhower 1950’s& The Cold War 1950’s & The Cold War.

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Presentation on theme: "Dwight D. Eisenhower 1950’s& The Cold War 1950’s & The Cold War."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Dwight D. Eisenhower 1950’s& The Cold War 1950’s & The Cold War

3 THE COLD WAR 1950’S Politics Culture 1960’s Politics Culture 1970’s Politics Culture 1980’s Politics Culture 1990’s Politics Culture

4 The Cold War Free powerpoints at hing.com hing.com

5 Cold War The Cold War was a time after WWII when the USA and the Soviet Union were rivals for world influence and a time when the two powers built up their military and nuclear weapons. NOT A SHOT WAS FIRED DURING THE COLD WAR!

6 Two sides of Cold War NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization USA, France, Great Britain, West Germany CAPITALISMCAPITALISM Warsaw Pact – pro Soviet countries – USSR, and all countries controlled by the USSR. COMMUNISM

7 NATO – North Atlantic Treaty Organization

8 YALTA (in the USSR) Date: Feb 1945 Present: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin

9 THE YALTA CONFERENCE 1. At the Black Sea resort city of Yalta in the Soviet Union the “Big Three” discussed the fate of Germany and the postwar world. 2.Stalin favored a harsh approach because of the devastation created by Germany. He wanted to keep Germany divided into occupation zones so that Germany would never again threaten the Soviet Union. 3.When Churchill disagreed, Roosevelt acted as a mediator between the two.

10 THE YALTA CONFERENCE - OUTCOMES 1. An agreement to temporarily divide Germany into four zones: American, British, Soviet and French. (In time all zones would be brought back together to reunite Germany) 2. Stalin agreed to “free elections” in Poland and other soviet-occupied European countries. 3. Stalin agreed to join in the war against Japan. (The US kept information about the nuclear bomb from the Soviets) 4. The three leaders agreed to the creation of the United Nations. 5. They agreed to meet again.

11 POTSDAM (Germany) Date: July 1945 Present: Attlee, Truman and Stalin

12 THE POTSDAM CONFERENCE 1. The same countries were present but the leaders were different: USSR: Stalin, USA: Truman, ENGLAND: Attlee 2. They met at the city of Potsdam near Berlin, Germany in July Many of the things that Stalin agreed to in the Yalta Conference he was not keeping.

13 THE POTSDAM CONFERNCE - OUTCOMES 1. Stalin refused free elections in Poland. Truman wanted free elections in order to spread democracy and stop communism. 2. Stalin wanted to take all of Germany’s resources to pay for damages in Russia. Truman wanted free trade and a strong economy in all of Europe. 3. NO AGREEMENTS WERE MADE BETWEEN NATIONS!

14 U.S. AIMS VERSUS SOVIET AIMS IN EUROPE THE US WANTED TO: 1. Create a world in which nations had the right of self- determination 2. Gain access to raw materials and markets for its own industries 3. Rebuild European governments to ensure stability and to create new markets for American goods. 4. Reunite Germany, believing that Europe would be more secure if Germany were productive. THE SOVIETS WANTED TO: 1. Encourage communism in other countries as part of the worldwide struggle between workers and the wealthy. 2. Rebuild its war-ravaged economy using Eastern Europe’s industrial equipment and raw materials. 3. Control Eastern Europe to balance U.S. influence in Western Europe. 4. Keep Germany divided and weak so that it would never again threaten the Soviet Union.

15 Iron Curtain – A term used by Winston Churchill to describe the separating of Those communist lands of East Europe from the West.

16 Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.

17 Berlin Wall Berlin is Germany’s capital city. The Soviets built the wall to keep communists from escaping to the American sector.

18 Berlin Wall

19 Berlin blockade led to Berlin Airlift

20 CURRENT PHOTOS A BERLIN WALL

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23 Wall torn down in 1989.

24 THE ARMS RACE DURING THE COLD WAR The Soviet Union did not trust the United States. The United States did not trust the Soviet Union. In Early 1946 Stalin gave a public speech announcing that communism and capitalism were incompatible and that another war was inevitable. Each country began to build more and more nuclear weapons.

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26 Nuclear Missiles!

27 Marshall Plan USA’s plan to send food, blankets, fuel to Europe to help them. AND to keep them from turning communist.

28 Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan, officially, was the primary plan of the United States for rebuilding the allied countries of Europe and repelling communism after World War II During that period some $13 billion of economic and technical assistance was given to help the recovery of the European

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30 Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine in March 1947 promised that the USA “would support free peoples who are resisting” communism. This led to containment – policy of containing communism where it is.

31 Truman Doctrine The Truman Doctrine was an American foreign policy designed to contain Communism by giving Greece and Turkey economic aid. It stated that the U.S. would support Greece and Turkey with economic and military aid to prevent their falling into the Soviet sphere. The Doctrine shifted American foreign policy towards the Soviet Union It is often used by historians as the starting date of the Cold War. On March 12, 1947

32 What is the United Nations?

33 United Nations International Organization where countries try to find peaceful solutions

34 United Nations It has no army but uses troops from other countries.

35 WHAT CAUSED THE COLD WAR? 4 CAUSES

36 1. MUTUAL DISTRUST A. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the US tried to overthrow the government. B. During WWII Stalin was angry at the US and Britain over the Second Front created to defeat Hitler. C. The US hid information regarding the Atomic Bomb from Stalin. D. After WWII Stalin took over Eastern Europe and did not hold free elections.

37 2. Two Ideologies A. Communism and Capitalism are opposites of each other. B. Communism wants state control of everything. C. Capitalism wants people to control everything – free elections, private business ownership etc....

38 3. The Arms Race A. The US and Soviet Union were always building new and more powerful weapons to see who had the most. B. The race to see who could put the first man in space occurred at this time also.

39 4. Competition in the Third World A. The US and Soviet Union were each trying to win the hearts and minds of people in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. B. The USSR was trying to spread communism and the US was trying to stop them.

40 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP

41 China becomes communist. 1.During WW2 the US had supported Chiang Kaishek against the communist leader Mao Zedong. 2.In 1944 a famine hit China, Chiang’s secret police arrest people for no reason. 3.Mao Zedong and the Communists encouraged peasants to learn to read and helped them to improve food production 4.Between 1944 and 1947 China experience civil war. During this time many of Chiang’s followers fled to the island of Taiwan where they established the People’s Republic of China. 5.Mao Zedong was free to rule China as a communist country.

42 THE COLD WAR HEATS UP KOREA becomes communist 1.When WW2 ended Japanese troops north of the 38 th parallel (in Korea) surrendered to the Soviets. 2.Japanese troops south of the parallel surrendered to American troops. 3.In 1948 the Republic of Korea (S Korea) established a government while at the same time the communists formed the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea in the north led by Kim II Sung. 4.By 1949 the Soviets were sending North Korea tanks, planes and money in an attempt to help the North Koreans take over the entire peninsula.

43 THE KOREAN WAR

44 Domino Theory Communism spreads like a disease BRINKMANSHIP – all out total war short of nuclear war

45 Korea and Vietnam USA tried to contain communism. In both wars, communist troops fought armies trained and funded by the USA.

46 Communists invaded from the north. China sent a million troops to help reds.

47 Korean War After the failure of the promise of Korean independence by the Allied nations, on June 25, 1950, communist North Korean troops invaded South Korea. Poorly armed, the South Koreans were no match for the North. The United Nations ordered North Korea to withdraw its troops. General MacArthur was appointed to command all UN troops in Korea. After three years of fighting a stalemate, more than 54,000 American troops perished.

48 I want to talk plainly to you tonight about what we are doing in Korea and about our policy in the Far East. In the simplest terms, what we are doing in Korea is this: We are trying to prevent a third world war. It is right for us to be in Korea. It was right last June. It is right today. The best time to meet the threat is in the beginning. It is easier to put out a fire in the beginning when it is small than after it has become a roaring blaze. And the best way to meet the threat of aggression is for the peace-loving nations to act together. If they don't act together, they are likely to be picked off, one by one.... Why can't we take other steps to punish the aggressor? Why don't we bomb Manchuria and China itself? Why don't we assist Chinese Nationalist troops to land on the mainland of China?

49 How did the USA try to contain communism?

50 Marshall Plan – helped countries economically so they won’t go red.


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