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Cold War 1945-1991. Cold War Beginnings Following WWII the US and USSR were the only two superpowers left Soon after WWII these two powers were in a Cold.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War 1945-1991. Cold War Beginnings Following WWII the US and USSR were the only two superpowers left Soon after WWII these two powers were in a Cold."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War

2 Cold War Beginnings Following WWII the US and USSR were the only two superpowers left Soon after WWII these two powers were in a Cold War (Icy Tensions) Why?- different economic systems, strategic interests, Stalin’s Speech, Iron Curtain Speech, Atomic Weapons

3 Pre Cold War distrust US – Communism antithesis of Democracy/Freedom/Capitalism – Stalin’s Purges – Non-Aggression Pact – USSR emphasis on Worldwide communism USSR – US attempted to undo Revolution – Delayed attack on Western Front during WWII – Believes peace will come from worldwide communism

4 Yalta Conference 1945 Big 3 – Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin Germany Split into 4 Occupied Zones Soviet vs. Western Allies (Tension for Four Decades) Agreement to create United Nations

5 Potsdam Big 3 – Truman, Churchill, Stalin Meeting more tense (Truman’s style, plus knowledge of da bomb) Presses Stalin for free elections in Eastern Europe Stalin later gives speech saying Capitalism and Communism cannot exist in same world

6 United States 1946 Churchill Warns of an “Iron Curtain” in Europe Stalin calls speech an act of war, beginning of the Cold War

7 Truman Doctrine Turkey and Greece faced Communist revolutions Truman asks for and recieves 400 million to aid fight against communism Beginning of Containment Policy (not allow communism to spread) – Becomes guiding US policy into 1970’s

8 Western Europe 1947 The Marshall Plan gives aid to European Nations Rebuilt Western Europe, threatened Communism

9 Berlin, Germany Stalin cuts off access to Berlin, US sends airplanes with supplies Stalin backs off, Victory for West

10 Western Europe/ North America 1949 NATO- North Atlantic Treaty Organization USSR creates Warsaw Pact in 1955

11 USSR/China USSR develops A-Bomb Arms race develops between US and USSR China falls to the Communists

12 Eisenhower Eisenhower / Dulles policy of Massive Retaliation (Brinkmanship)

13 Containment Chart EventYearDescriptionHow was this a part of containment policy? Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift NATO Brinkmanship

14 Korea Communist North Korea Invades South Korea UN and West aid South Korea while Soviet Union and China aid North Korea

15 38th Parallel

16 Inchon Landing

17 Yalu River

18 Truman Fires Macarthur

19 1953 Cease Fire and DMZ

20 Vietnam 1954 US actively aids against Ho Chi Minh and Communists French defeat at Dien Bien Phu

21 Paris Peace Accords

22 Eisenhower and the Domino Theory

23 JFK and Diem

24 LBJ USS Maddox and Gulf of Tonkin

25 (Tet Offensive)

26 1968- Nixon and Vietnamization

27 1975- Fall of Saigon

28 Vietnam Effects

29 Cuba 1959 Fidel Castro and Communists take Cuba

30 Cuba 1960 Bay of Pigs invasion, attempted overthrow of Fidel Castro’s Communism

31 Cuba 1962 Soviet Missiles Discovered in Cuba Beginning of 13 Day Cuban Missile Crisis

32 Cuban Missile Crisis Closest ever coming to Nuclear War Kennedy vs. Kruschev President Kennedy Blocks Cuba with Ships (“eye to eye and the other guy blinked”)

33 Soviet Union Stalin Dies in 1953, Nikita Kruschev becomes new Soviet Leader 1956 begins policy of De-Stalinization

34 Hungary 1956 Hungarian Leader Imre Nage takes Hungary out of Warsaw Pact Kruschev sends in Soviet Troops to regain order

35 USSR-1957 Soviets Launch Sputnik Beginning of Space Race between US and USSR

36 Berlin, Germany 1961 East Germany builds wall, cuts off access for East Germany to West Berlin Berlin Wall became a symbol of the Cold War

37 USSR / Czecholslovakia Leonid Brezhnez becomes leader of Soviet Union Czechovakian leader Alexander Dubcek lessoned censorship “Prague Spring” Free Expression clamped down with Brezhnez Doctrine (later used in Afghanistan)

38 Richard Nixon and Detente Détente- Lessening Cold War Tensions Real Politik- dealing with nations in a practical and flexible manner (anti-containment) Nixon visits China (Sino-Soviet Split) SALT Treaties Policy continued with Gerald Ford and Jimmy Carter

39 Ronald Reagan Fiercely Anti-Communist Moved Away from Détente Increased Military Spending SDI, Strategic Defense Initiative or Star Wars

40 USSR 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes Premier Begins a series of Reforms and Freedoms in Russia

41 Glasnost Openness- Churches opened, Press allowed to criticize government, Banned authors allowed to publish books

42 Perestroika “Economic Restructuring”, Managers make more decisions, small private businesses

43 Democratization Gradual opening of the political system Election of a new group of lawmakers Communist Party no longer chose all candidates

44 USSR 1991 Nationalities begin to call of Independence August Coup, by Communist Hardliners Boris Yeltsin Seen as Hero Boris Yeltsin becomes President of Russia

45 Russia Boris Yeltsin President Forms Commonwealth of Independent States of CIS Shock Therapy for Economy

46 Russia Vladimir Putin appointed President in 1999 (won re-election twice) Forcefully dealt with Chechnya Tightened Grip of government on Economy Restricted Voting Rights and Liberties

47 Central and Eastern Europe Poland Lech Walesa leads workers Union Solidarity against Communist Government Series of strikes and crackdowns. By 1989, Solidarity was legal in Poland, helped gain free elections

48 Berlin, Germany 1989 Berlin Wall falls after Hungary opens its borders (Symbol of End of Cold War) Start of the collapse of the Eastern Bloc Process of Reunification


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