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Retreat from the New Deal Section 16.1 Truman, re-elected, holds up a paper announcing his defeat.

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Presentation on theme: "Retreat from the New Deal Section 16.1 Truman, re-elected, holds up a paper announcing his defeat."— Presentation transcript:

1 Retreat from the New Deal Section 16.1 Truman, re-elected, holds up a paper announcing his defeat

2 What is a backlash in political elections? Election of 2008 Election of 2000 Election of 1994 Election of 1946 When citizens punish the incumbent government by voting against them Below: Dick Cheney 2000

3 What factors contribute to a backlash? Voters are upset about the way the current President or Congress is handling: Economy –Depression or Recession –High Taxes Civil Rights Morals/Religion Security/Foreign Policy Perceived Corruption Right: montage of controversial slogans and people

4 Today we will be able to identify that, following WWII, Americans turned away from the New Deal and towards conservatism by analyzing the results of the election of 1946/1948. We will also be able to explain that, despite this political shift, Truman was able to win the election of 1948 to the surprise of political experts.

5 Where on the political spectrum did FDR, Truman, New Deal Policies, and Congress fall in 1945? FDR Truman The New Deal Congress

6 Where on the political spectrum do communism and unions fall? FDR Truman The New Deal Congress Communism Unions

7 Where on the political spectrum do conservatives fall? FDR Truman The New Deal Congress Communism Unions Conservatives Backlash

8 Post WWII America Capture from Peter Jennings clip on postwar issues

9 Describe Truman’s plan for America: Continue New Deal programs Subsidize public housing Institute a form of National Health Insurance Fight job discrimination Civil Rights –Desegregated military Above: Truman at desk; below left: cartoon implies Truman is greedy for power; below right: headline on de- segregation of military

10 What hindered Truman? Inflation –15% annually in late ‘40s Shortages –Marshall Plan Labor unrest "To Err is Truman" Approval ratings –87% in 1945 –32% in 1946 Above: cartoon implies- wordlessly- that Truman is too small for the job (dwarfed by military hat, of the sort MacArthur wore)

11 Why was there a backlash in 1946? Slow economy –still regulated by price controls from WWII Republicans (Nixon) pushed Truman to remove the price controls. Truman did –Result = prices soared –Strikes increased Red Scare Republicans campaigned under slogan, “Had Enough?” Below: Nixon with HUAC lawyers

12 What were the results of the 1946 congressional elections? 1947 DemocratRepublican House Senate DemocratsRepublican House Senate 5738 Election of 1946

13 Why was the 80 th Republican-dominated Congress called the “Do Nothing” Congress? Truman’s label for them Said conservative Congress would not pass anything he proposed Republicans claimed they were trying to stop “government interference.” –Disliked New Deal –Wanted to control unions Above: Truman signs law; below: President meets with civil rights advocates

14 What was the Taft-Hartley Bill? Limited unions’ bargaining power, ability to strike, and requirements for union membership. Passed the House and Senate Truman vetoed the bill, calling it “Slave Labor” Congress voted to override the President’s veto. Above: Senator Taft; below: US Capitol

15 Who were the candidates for president in the election of 1948? Thomas Dewey –Republican Governor of NY –polished, well spoken Truman –Incumbent –Blunt, gruff –35% approval rating –Encouraged not to run Above: Dewey; Below: Truman

16 Who were the candidates for president in the election of 1948? Strom Thurmond –Dixiecrats Broke away from Democrats over “states rights” i.e., Civil Rights intruding on “Southern Way of Life” Henry Wallace –Progressive party A socialist Above: Thurmond Below: Wallace

17 Why is important that Thurmond and Wallace ran for President? Who did it hurt? A grinning Harry Truman

18 Election of 1948 Right: a 1948 Time election cover

19 Truman Capture from clip on Truman and human rights

20 Truman takes to the Rails Capture from clip on Truman campaigning

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22 Describe Truman’s campaign strategy: Exposed the “Do Nothing Congress” –Congress had rejected civil rights, new deal reforms, and many others. Gave over 230 speeches –32 thousand miles Message: Republicans have no real plan Dewey’s pollster stopped making phone calls a month before election Dewey –Only gave 16 speeches –Vague on issues (platitudes) Still…polled one week from election day, 50 experts all predicted a Dewey victory Two pictures of Truman campaigning

23 Get Out the Vote! The last step was for Democratic Party activists to heed President Truman and encourage voters to ignore the polls, assume ‘their man’ had a chance, get out there on the first Tuesday after the first Monday of November, and VOTE.

24 What were the results? Truman won, 49.5% to 45.1% Wallace and Thurmond each got about 2% Chicago Tribune (conservative paper) assumed Dewey would win, and printed headline early “Dewey defeats Truman” reprise

25 Should politicians do what is popular or what they think is right? Clockwise, from left: Truman’s whistle-stop tour, Clinton, George W. Bush


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