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The Beginnings of the Cold War 1945 - 1953. Lividia Palace, Yalta, Crimea.

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Presentation on theme: "The Beginnings of the Cold War 1945 - 1953. Lividia Palace, Yalta, Crimea."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Beginnings of the Cold War 1945 - 1953

2 Lividia Palace, Yalta, Crimea

3 Yalta Conference (Feb. 4 – 11, 1945)  Poland moved west & govt. broadened  Germany & Berlin divided into 4 occupation zones  USSR to declare war on Japan 2-3 months after V-E Day & recognize Nationalist China  Would regain what it lost in Russo- Japanese War  Korea divided at 38 th parallel  Declaration of Liberated Europe promised to est. democracies & rebuild economies of liberated nations Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt & Josef Stalin at Yalta (copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s)

4 Post-WWII Eastern Europe

5 The United Nations  Charter devised at Dunbarton Oaks (1944) & San Francisco (1945)  General Assembly – all nations have a vote  Security Council –  5 permanent members (US, USSR, Britain, France & China) each have veto power  Other members serve limited terms  Other arms: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, etc.

6 Potsdam Conference (July 17 – Aug. 2, 1945)  Germany disarmed & industry dismantled  Occupiers take reparations out of zones  Council of Foreign Ministers to settle Italy, Finland, Hungary, Bulgaria & Romania (treaties in 1947)  Nuremberg Trials (Nov. 1945 - Oct. 1946) result in execution of top Nazis for “crimes against humanity” Clement Attlee, Harry Truman & Josef Stalin at Potsdam, Aug. 1, 1945 (from the Truman Pres. Library & Museum collection)

7 Nazis on Trial at Nuremburg

8 Atomic Diplomacy  Decision to use A-bombs at end of WWII partly influenced by desire to impress Soviet Union  Henry Wallace warned of dangerous arms race leading to nuclear war  Truman saw nuclear weapons as effective deterrent to Soviet aggression  Soviets tested their own A-bomb in Sept. 1949  U.S. began building H-bomb in 1950 (tested in 1954) Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s

9 Atomic Culture: Bikini

10 The Bomb and Containment Policy  MAD = mutually assured destruction  George F. Kennan  Long Telegram (1946) warned Soviets couldn’t be trusted, but should be met with patient resolve  “X Article” (1947) called for containing Soviet expansion & proving superiority of U.S. ideals  NSC-68 (1950) codified containment policy  By all means short of war, block Soviet expansion, expose lies, induce retraction, & sow “seeds of destruction” within USSR

11 The Beginnings of the Cold War in Europe  1945: Soviets est. puppet regimes in Poland & Romania  Truman blasts Molotov for violating Yalta agreements  1946: Soviets reject Baruch Plan to share atomic secrets  Churchill gives “Iron Curtain” speech  1947: Communist coup in Hungary  U.S. announces Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan  National Security Act:  Dept. of Defense unified old War & Navy Dept.s  Joint Chiefs of Staff coordinates military plans between the 4 service branches  National Security Council: President, Vice President, Sec. of State, Sec. of Defense, CIA & FBI Directors, National Security Advisor  Central Intelligence Agency conducts spying & covert operations

12 The Division of Germany  1948: Soviets est. puppet regime in Czechoslovakia  Soviets blockade W. Berlin  U.S. stages Berlin Airlift (1948-49)  British, French & U.S. occupation zones merged into “Trizonia” – becomes West Germany in 1949  Soviets est. puppet regime in East Germany

13 Divided Europe, 1949-1989  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) = 1 st permanent alliance for U.S.  Soviets created Warsaw Pact & COMECON to counter NATO & Marshall Plan Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s

14 The Beginnings of the Cold War in Asia  Japan occupied & rebuilt solely by U.S.  Caroline, Marshall & Mariana islands put under U.S. trusteeship  Gen. Douglas MacArthur wrote new Japanese constitution  Permanent treaty signed in 1951  Mao Zedong’s Communists took over China in 1949  Jiang Jieshi’s Kuomintang fled to Taiwan  Korea divided at 38 th parallel by Yalta agreement  UN held elections in South in 1948  North more industrialized, but fewer people Mao Zedong Jiang Jieshi

15 The Korean War (1950-1953)  Kim Il-Sung got reluctant approval from Stalin  Mao wanted Soviet aid to take Taiwan  80% of Chinese industry in Manchuria  Truman got immediate UN action – saw it as 1930s all over again  British, Canadian, Turkish & other troops, too  Est. defensive line around Pusan, then staged Inchon landing  War prolonged due to Synghman Rhee’s desire for reunification  Invasion of North brought Chinese into war  Armistice signed July 27, 1953  Cost to the U.S.:  54,000 dead; 103,000 injured; $69.5 billion  1.5 million Chinese & N. Korean casualties Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s

16 The Home Front  Executive Branch Loyalty Program (1947)  Soviet Spy Cases:  Alger Hiss convicted of perjury (1950)  Julius & Ethel Rosenberg convicted of espionage (1951) & executed (1953)  McCarran Internal Security Act (1950)  Unlawful to contribute to the est. of a totalitarian gov’t  “Communist front” org. members had to register; denied travel visas & gov’t jobs  Sen. Joseph McCarthy led Senate Permanent Investigation Committee (1953- 54) Copyright 2000, Bedford/St. Martin’s

17 Alger HissJulius & Ethel Rosenberg Spies Like Us

18 Postwar Conservatives  Classic liberals – feared expansion of government power  Many were former Communists disillusioned with Stalin & USSR.  Argued that liberal Democrats were either dangerously naïve or else traitors  James Burnham argued containment wasn’t enough – too defensive, and not spiritually inspiring  Whittaker Chambers said that the transcendent issue was religious – both Communism & secular humanism were atheistic James Burnham Whittaker Chambers


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