Presentation on theme: "TRUMAN, the Iron Curtain AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE TRUMAN, the Iron Curtain AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE IB History of the Americas."— Presentation transcript:
TRUMAN, the Iron Curtain AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE TRUMAN, the Iron Curtain AND CONTAINMENT IN EUROPE IB History of the Americas
GUIDING QUESTION Analyze the success and failures of the United States Cold War policy of containment during the period 1945-1953 in Europe.
The Iron Curtain The Iron Curtain was the symbolic, ideological, and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991
The Iron Curtain The Iron Curtain took the shape of border defenses between the countries of Western and Eastern Europe, most notably the Berlin Wall, which served as a longtime symbol of the Curtain altogether.
Who came up with it? The term was first used by Nazi Germany's Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, in a manifesto he published in the German newspaper Das Reich in February 1945, but was popularized by Winston Churchill's "Sinews of Peace" speech of March 5,1946
THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE
What was it….. It was very simple….. isolationist Whereas before WW2 the USA had been isolationist and not got involved in Europe….NOW…… Because of the fear of Communism the USA was prepared to intervene throughout the world to protect democracy against communism…. By lending equipment, advice etc ( and eventually military force) The main aim was to stop communism spreading further CONTAINMENT This policy was called CONTAINMENT
The Truman Doctrine March 12, 1947 Speech that became known as the Truman doctrine. Truman mapped out the realities of the world after WWII. He explained that the US should help any country that was threatened by Communism The only choice is between “democracy” and “totalitarianism” Idea of Containment Sent $400 million worth of war supplies to Greece and helped push out Communism Sent $400 million worth of war supplies to Greece and helped push out Communism The Truman Doctrine marked a new level of American commitment to a Cold War. The Truman Doctrine marked a new level of American commitment to a Cold War.
Containment The idea of holding back the spread of Communism This was the first time the American Public heard of this idea of “containment” Americans at this point were not too happy about an anti-communist crusade Truman had to convince Americans that the threat from Soviets was real and increasing Used terms “good v. evil”
What did the Truman Doctrine Imply? His speech meant that the US was ready to take a major part in world affairs, and send money, weapons and advisors to any country in the world that felt threatened by Communism He didn’t plan on sending troops but rather tackling the problem at the roots He saw misery and poverty nurturing the seeds of Communism Truman believed that if he used the wealth of the US to help Europe recover and regain prosperity, fewer countries would be tempted by Communism.
America’s Response Britain decided to withdraw troops end aid in Greece This left it up to Americans to restore democracy in Greece. Congress gave support of Truman in giving $400 million to Greece and Turkey.
THE MARSHALL PLAN 1947 (Marshall Aid) What Was it? An American response to the poverty and hardship in post war Europe Who was Marshall? An American General and American Secretary of State, sent to assess the economic state of Europe
The Marshall Plan The Marshall Plan was a program announced by General George Marshall in June of 1947 It was a program of aid to war-torn Europe to re-equip its factories and revive agriculture and trade This aid took the form of money, equipment, food, and technical assistance
Details Economies in ruins Shortages of goods Bread still rationed Coal shortages – in GB electricity cuts each day It was thought that these were the conditions in which communism thrived WHY?
What a nice gesture by the Americans. Yes BUT….. Yes BUT….. The aid came in the form of goods made by American firms The aid came in the form of goods made by American firms So there was an element of American self-interest to prevent another depression in USA So there was an element of American self-interest to prevent another depression in USA
Europe’s Reaction European leaders confronted with economic hardships and no resources were in no position to say no They quickly accepted.
And Stalin He hated Marshall Aid!! He hated Marshall Aid!! Forbade Eastern European countries from having anything to do with it Forbade Eastern European countries from having anything to do with it Regarded as anti-Communist Regarded as anti-Communist Feared that it might weaken his hold on Eastern Bloc Feared that it might weaken his hold on Eastern Bloc And Eastern countries would swing to the US dollar. And Eastern countries would swing to the US dollar.
USSR v. US Truman saw the Marshall Plan as one of America’s greatest contributions to world peace The Soviets saw it as aiming to unite countries against Communism Russia’s reply: Create the Cominform: an attempt to consolidate control over the Soviet satellites and bring conformity to Eastern bloc
The Marshall Plan in Action In April 1948, the US Congress allocated $5.3 billion to implement the Marshall Plan. By the time the plan had come to an end in 1951, over $13 billion had been spent and this money had enabled European countries to develop their economies and improve their standards of living
Two sides to every story… One Side: “The most unselfish act by any great power in history” –Winston Churchill on the Marshall Plan Another Side: It also protected American interests Enabled the US to dominate Europe economically Often it was given in the form of goods which allowed the US to control its use better than giving dollars