21. Taft-Hartley Act – passed by conservative Congress (1947). I. Truman & Eisenhower.A. Peacetime Economy.1. Taft-Hartley Act – passed by conservative Congress (1947).a) Outlawed ‘UnionShops’ (whichrequired unionmembership).The Taft-Hartley Act amended the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA),informally the Wagner Act), which Congress passed in 1935. GI Bill – Loans to veterans for business, home, or college.
3Jackie Robinson “Breaking the Color Line” The first African-American Major League Baseball player of the modern era.Robinson's 1947 Major League debut with the Brooklyn Dodgers ended approximately 60 years of baseball segregation, breaking the baseball color line, or color barrier.At that time in the United States, many white people believed that blacks and whites should be kept apart in many aspects of life, including sports.Some pitchers threw at his head and legs; one national League team threatened to strike to drive him out.
4B. Truman’s Domestic Programs. 1. Expansion of Social Security. 2. ↑ min. wage from .45 to .75 an hour. Truman proposed the Civil Rights Act of 1948 which would haveprotected African American voting rights and abolished polltaxes, and made lynching a federal crime – but it met resistancefrom Republicans and conservative Southern Democrats likeSenator Strom Thurman from South Carolina. Sen. Strom Thurman (R) conducted the longest filibuster inCongressional history to defeat the Civil Rights Act. Had uneasy relationship with Congress; Not able to pass many bills.
5a) “Do Nothing Congress” (not counting Truman & Marshall Plans). 3. Election of 1948.a) “Do Nothing Congress” (not counting Truman & Marshall Plans).b) Newspaper incorrectly predicts “Dewey Defeats Truman.” Southern Democrats left the party and formed the States’ Rights,or Dixiecrat Party, over objections to Truman’s support forcivil rights; nominated Strom Thurman as Presidential candidate. Liberal Democrats left over Truman’s anti-Soviet foreign policy, formingthe Progressive Party; nominated Henry Wallace as pres. candidate. The Korean War starts in 1950.
6a) National Housing Act of 1949 – low-income housing for 800K people. 4. Truman’s “Fair Deal”a) National Housing Act of 1949 – low-income housing for 800K people.Sprawling publichousing projectslike Chicago'sCabrini-Greenwere one resultof the HousingAct of 1949. Apart from the New Deal, Truman said “everyone has a right to expecta Fair Deal from the gov’t.”The conservative Congress refused to pass national health insurance,subsidies for farmers, or federal aid for schools. Congress refused to enact Truman’s civil rights legislation.
7C. Eisenhower Years.1. “Dynamic Conservatism” & middle of the road – balancing economic conservatism w/ some activism.Eisenhower continued all the major New Deal programs still in operation, especially Social Security. He expanded its programs and rolledthem into a new cabinet-level agency, the Dept of Health, Education and Welfare, while extending benefits to an additional ten million workers.1969Considered himself as middle of the road, balancing activism andeconomic conservatism. “I Like Ike” campaign slogan. Ike’s running mate was CA Senator Richard Nixon.
8 Financial aid to Egypt. Eisenhower’s Policies: advocated apolicy of massive strength tocombat Communism.► Massive Retaliation – Threaten nuclear war ifCommunists tried to seize territory by force.► Brinkmanship – Willingness to go to the brink ofwar to force the other to back down.► Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) – Used covertoperations to fight Communism.► Developing Nations – Countries with primaryagricultural economies (many covert ops). Financial aid to Egypt. Covert ops in Iran and Guatemala (1951 and 1953). Stalin died in 1952, Khrushchev new leader in 1956. Revolt in Hungary – June, 1956, Soviet tanks in Budapest to put down uprising. Eisenhower warned of the Military-Industrial Complex as he left the presidency. Berlin Wall, aka Iron Curtain (1961 by Khrushchev until 1989). Uprisings against USSR: Poland in 1952; Hungary in 1956; Czechoslovakia in 1968.
9States admitted to the Union Inspired by Germany’s Autobahn2. Federal Highway Act (1956) – largest public works program in history.Dollar coinissued bythe U.S.Mint fromhonoringIke.States admitted to the UnionAlaska – January 3, 1959 = 49th stateHawaii – August 21, 1959 = 50th state$25 Billion over 10 years for 40,000 miles of highway; St. LawrenceSeaway (connect Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean through theSt. Lawrence River, completed with Canada).Ike expanded the New Deal, extended Social Security to an additional10 million people; extended unemployment compensation to anadditional 4 million; raised min. wage to $1. an hour; some gov’taid to farmers.Complete transition to peacetime economy (1956) by Ike’s secondterm. Prosperous times.
10Federal Highway Act of 1956: Creating the Interstate System The Cold War has left a largefootprint on the U.S. landscapewith the Interstate Highway System:► Interstates helped makesuburbs possible,trumpeted the power ofcapitalism.► Helped build the trucking industry,carrying the country's freight.► Aid in the movement of troops andmaterial and speed theevacuation of cities if attacked.► All 45, miles of the interstatesystem are built to uniformdesign standards.► Quarter mile section that’s straight formilitary planes to land.12-foot-wide lanes, designed for 50-70mph travel, at least two lanes in eachdirection & no traffic lights/intersections.
11II. The Affluent Society. An increase in service sector and professional jobs led to a great increasein American income from 1940 to 1955.
12A. John Kenneth Galbraith – Economist A. John Kenneth Galbraith – Economist published The Affluent Society (1958): postwar prosperity was a new phenomenon.The Affluent Society by Harvard economist JohnKenneth Galbraith sought to clearly outline themanner in which the post-WWII America wasbecoming wealthy in the private sector butremained poor in the public sector, lacking socialand physical infrastructure, and perpetuating incomedisparities. The book sparked much publicdiscussion at the time, and it is widely rememberedfor Galbraith's popularizing of the term"conventional wisdom".“Economy of abundance” – abundance of goods and services that allowedpeople to enjoy a standard of living they never thought possible.
131. White-collar jobs – sales & management; ↑. B. Spread of Wealth.1. White-collar jobs – sales & management; ↑.2. Blue-collar jobs – physical labor in industry; ↓.Origin of the term:The term 'white-collar' possibly derives from theclerical collar of a priest's clothing who used tonot only performed ecclesiastical duties, but alsoserved as physicians, lawyers, scribes, andaccountants. A more popular theory is that theduring most of the twentieth century (male) officeworkers almost always had to wear dress shirts,which had a white collar.
14C. Multinationals and Franchises. 1. Multinational Corporations – Located near raw materials & use cheap labor.2. Franchises – A person owns/runs a store in a chain.A corporation or enterprise manages production ordelivers services in at least two countries. Very largemultinationals have budgets that exceed those of manycountries and have a powerful influence in internationalrelations and local economies. They also play animportant role in globalization.One of manyFranchise businesses Multinational Corps created mostly white-collar jobs. Franchise = McDonalds, El Pollo Loco, Snap on Tools, etc.
15Some of the worst ‘Multinational Corporations’ since 2001 Paint sludge in NJ
16The ‘General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade’ (GATT) in 1947 expanded international trade bymutual reduction of tariffs.Current WTO membersin greenProtesting the WTOIn Hong Kong, 2005.GATT created the World Trade Organization (WTO) on January 1, 1995.
17D. The Growth of Suburbia. 1. Levittown – Outside NYC; 1st planned suburb.$7,990or$60 amonth1949, Levittown was a planned residential community by Bill Levitt; massproduced (like cars) hundreds of simple & similar looking homes in apotato field 10 miles east of NYC (Long Island).Between , thousands of GIs & families rushed to buy theinexpensive homes; other suburbs sprang up across America.
181. ‘Baby Boom’ – U.S. birthrate exploded after WWII. E. The 1950’s Family.1. ‘Baby Boom’ – U.S. birthrate exploded after WWII.2. From , 65 million children.1950 At its height, a child was born every 7 seconds.
19F. Women in the 1950’s – Emphasis on. making a “happy home,” but women F. Women in the 1950’s – Emphasis on making a “happy home,” but women working outside of the home ↑. By 1960, nearly 1/3 of all married women worked outside the home.The 50’s set the stage for rebelling against traditional female rolesand the feminist movement in 1960’s.
211. Jonas Salk – Vaccine for polio. G. Technological Breakthroughs – Electronics, computers, medicine, & space.1. Jonas Salk – Vaccine for polio.Polio epidemicsin 1916 leftabout 6K dead& 27K paralyzedin the U.S.After thevaccine wasavailable, poliocases droppedby 85-90% inonly two years.JonasSalk oncoverof TimeMagazine,1954. Jan 31, 1958, (4 months after Sputnik) US launches its own satellite.
22III. Popular Culture of the 1950’s. A. New Mass Media. 1. Rise of T.V. Popularity.Edward R. Murrow& TranscontinentalTV in 1951.“I Love Lucy”“The Lone Ranger” Only 7-8K t.v. sets in 1946; About 40 million sets in 1957.I Love Lucy, The Lone Ranger, Gunsmoke, and Dragnet.“The only thing ‘Red’ about Lucy is her hair.”
23Twenty One hostJack Barry (center),with contestantsVivienne Nearing &Charles Van Doren.Ed Sullivan Ed Sullivan’s Toast of the Town – mix of comedy, song, and dance. Twenty-One – 1956 scandal, contestant Charles Van Doren and others received answers. After TV copied the radio’s concepts, radio ratings fell, but then specialized in playing recorded music and flourished (doubled from 1948 to 1957).
24B. New Youth Culture. 1. Rock ‘n’ Roll. Cover of “The King’s” debut RCAVictor album.Photo takenon January 31,1955.1955Radio disk jockey Alan Freed, in Cleveland on July 11, 1951, noticedwhite teenagers buying African American rhythm & blues recordsand dancing to the music; Put on a “rock ‘n’ roll party” after hisclassical program, called himself “Moondog” ; Extremely popular!Soon after, white artists began making music that stemmed fromAfrican American rhythms and sounds, creating a new form ofmusic called rock ‘n’ roll. Elvis Presley.
25a plane crash. Rock and Roll lost its edge and became bland and safe Toward the end of the 1950's Rock and Roll lost many of its great artists. Elvis Presley was drafted into the Army (died in ’77); Little Richard quitRock and Roll; Ritchie Valens, Buddy Holly, & the Big Bopper were killed ina plane crash. Rock and Roll lost its edge and became bland and safeLittleRichardElvis on the Ed Sullivan Show.Presley's "gyrations" created a stormof controversy — even eclipsing the'communist threat' headlines prevalentat the time. The press described hisperformance as "vulgar" and "obscene".
262. Generation Gap – Cultural separation between children & parents. Jack Kerouac,"About the BeatGeneration,"(1957).The Beats – sought to live unconventional lives as fugitives from a culturethey despised; Hated the sterilization and conformity of Americansociety in the 1950’s.Jack Kerouac – (a Beat) published On the Road (1957) – Adventuresabout a car thief and con artist.James Dean in Rebel Without a Cause (mid-1950’s) – Popular actor whodied in car crash at age 24.
27C. African American Entertainers. Chuck Berry Although few performed on t.v., many had an impact on early rock ‘n’ roll.Nat King Cole – 1956, Had his own 15-minute musical variety show,cancelled after 64 shows in 1957 due to no national sponsor. Chuck Berry, Ray Charles, Little Richard, and the Drifters. Little Richard and Chuck Berry influenced the Beatles (1960’s).
28 The late 1950’s saw several women’s groups: Crystals, Chiffons, The late 1950’s saw several women’s groups: Crystals, Chiffons, Shirelles, and Ronettes. The Supremes and Martha and the Vandellas (1960’s). Despite innovations in music and economic boom of the 1950’s, for many American poor and minorities the American dream was well out of reach.
29including two children, IV. The Other Side of American Life.A. Poverty Amidst Prosperity.1. Poverty Line – Gov’t sets minimum income required to support a family.In 2006, in the U.S.,the poverty thresholdfor a single personunder 65 was $10,488;The threshold for afamily group of four,including two children,was $20,444.
302. Michael Harrington – The Other America (1962); hidden U.S. poverty. 3. Urban Renewal – 1950’s, programs to eliminate poverty by tearing down slums & erect new buildings.Urban Renewal
314. Termination policy – Federal gov’t 4. Termination policy – Federal gov’t withdrew recognition of Native American groups as legal entities. Encouraged off the reservations and into cities (Minneapolis, MN);Developers wanted their land.
325. Juvenile Delinquency – Anti-social or 5. Juvenile Delinquency – Anti-social or criminal behavior of young people.Between 1948 and 1953, U.S. had a 45% increase in delinquencycrime rates (vehicle theft). Education worries increased after the 1957 Sputnik launch.