Presentation on theme: "Truman: Neither War Nor Peace"— Presentation transcript:
1 Truman: Neither War Nor Peace Chapter 28Truman: Neither War Nor PeaceBeginnings of the Cold WarDealing With a New WorldPresident in His Own RightThe Korean War
2 Beginnings of the Cold War Section 1 TrumanUnited NationsControlling the AtomProblems with the RussiansTruman Doctrine
3 A. Characteristics of Truman MissouriNo College EducationFarmerServed in WWICounty JudgeSenatorVery intelligent, hard-working, and fair
4 B. Building a New World Organization United Nations—replaced League of nations and goal was to preserve peaceUS Congress ratified UN Charter with a vote of 8-2
5 United Nations (continued) General Assembly—Included delegates from every member nation. (town hall meeting of the world)Each member got one vote (except for Russia which got 3)Responsible for budget and electing new members
6 United Nations (continued) Security Council—eleven members including the Big Five (police force of the world)Big Five had permanent seats and right to vetoOthers were elected to two-year termsLooked into disputes
7 C. Controlling the AtomBernard Baruch—proposed a world agency that would oversee atomic energy and inspect atomic plants.Program failed because of the USSR$ 1 billion dollar program to produce more scientists and mathematiciansMade funds available for laboratoriesGave scholarships to those interested in science
8 D. Problems with the Russians Forced Communism on PolandEastern European Countries became CommunistIron Curtain—term used by Churchill to describe the line between Soviet-dominated Europe and the West.
9 Problems with the Russians (continued) Soviets prevented free passage of people, information, and ideas across its borders.Turkey and Greece were both facing Communist insurgentsAtomic secrets had been leaked to the Russians
10 E. Warnings about Russia Containment—trying to keep the Soviet Union from expanding its area of influenceGeorge Keenan—warned that Communism must be contained because they plan to conquer the world.
11 F. The Truman DoctrineDean Ascheson—warned that if Greece fell to Communism, Asia, Africa, and Europe were in grave dangerGeorge Marshall (along with Ascheson)—developed a plan so this would not happen.Truman Doctrine—US policy of economic and military support to those who were being subjugated to outside forces
12 G. Greek-Turkish Aid Bill First law giving aid to oppose Communist expansionHelped defeat the influence of Communism in their countries
13 H. Marshall Plan (ERP)US would help Europe economically over the next 3-4 years to keep its economy healthy and invulnerable.Huge Success…in addition, they were able to buy our goods and kept our economy flourishing.
14 I. Point Four ProgramGave economic aid to the poor free nations in Asia, Africa, and Latin America
15 Section 2: Dealing with a New World Bringing the Boys HomeAtomic Energy ActConverting to PeacetimeTaft-Hartley ActAn Active CongressThe Fair DealProblems with GermanyBerlin BlockadeNATOElection of 1948
16 A. Bringing the Boys Home 1946—armed forces decreased from 12 million to 3 millionGI Bill of RightsProvided hospitals and clinicsPayments to unemployed veteransPreference for federal jobsFree tuition, books, and on-the-job training
17 B. Atomic Energy ActTransferred the control of atomic energy from government to civilian handsHowever, all production facilities and nuclear plants would be government owned.Commission was set up to control the peacetime development of atomic energy
18 C. Converting to Peacetime 1st time the nation did not face a depression after the warNo shortage of jobsTroubled by strikes, shortages of resources, and inflation.
19 D. The Taft-Hartley ActLimited Union activities in order to prevent strikes and corruptionOutlawed the closed shop—had to pay dues to join a unionAllowed the union shop—required workers to join a unionPermitted states to enact a right-to-work law—forbid the union shop in that stateLaw was passed over Truman’s veto.
20 E. An Active Congress Lowered taxes (especially for the wealthy) Cut back on aid to farmers, social security, and education22nd Amendment—limited a president to two termsPresidential Succession Act—changed the order in which someone became President if the President dies during office.
21 F. Truman’s Fair DealExtension of FDR’s New Deal that included civil rights laws.Desegregated armed forcesAppointed first black governor and judgeFought for rights of blacks in civil rights cases
22 G. The Problem of Germany After WWII, Germany was split into 4 zones of occupation: US, Russia, Britain, and France.US, Britain, and France merged their together to become one territoryRussia felt threatened and started the Berlin Blockade
23 H. Potsdam ConferenceLeaders met to confirm that Nazi “war criminals” would be triedMany were executed.Many Japanese leaders later faced the same fate
24 I. The Berlin BlockadeGermany was divided into eastern and western GermanyRussia banned all supplies from entering West Berlin to prevent the Western Powers from forming a government there.
25 J. Berlin AirliftUS, England, and France supplied the city with clothing, food and coal by air (Berlin Airlift)Russia accepted defeat and lifted the banThe two sides remained separated with Eastern Germany becoming a satellite nation of Russia.
26 K. NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization—Atlantic Pact that created allies between the US, Canada and ten other Western European nationMilitary enforcement for the prevention of the spread of communismEisenhower is named first Commander of NATO forces
27 L. The Election of 1948 Tom Dewey—R Truman –D Democrats were divided: Dixiecrats—insisted on segregation of blacks and nominated Strom ThurmondProgressives—believed in cooperating with Russia and nominated Henry WallaceTruman still wins despite the division due to his hard work on his campaign.
28 Section 3: President in His Own Right Truman’s Fair Deal (pros and cons)The Second Red ScareWorld Situation WorsensRise of McCarthyismProtecting the United States
29 A. Fair DealSuccessful: minimum wage increase, extension of social security, and money for projects to help the poorUnsuccessful: civil rights laws, national health insurance, and aid to farmers
30 B. The Second Red ScareHouse Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)—held public hearings against those who were suspicious of communist activitiesRichard Nixon—one of the most active members of the HUAC.Alger Hiss—accused of providing documents to the Russians. “Red Herring”
31 C. World Situation Worsens Soviet Union explodes an atomic bomb in 1949Klaus Fuchs—confessed to giving Russians secrets about the bombChina becomes Communist under Mao Zedong
32 D. Rise of McCarthyismJoseph McCarthy—senator who claimed that the State department was infested with Communists
33 E. Protecting the USMcCarran Act—required all Communist Organizations to register with the Attorney GeneralMcCarran-Warren Act—new immigration law to keep out Communists.Quota system, loyalty checks, and deportationRosenbergs—sentenced to death for giving key secrets to Russians about the bomb.