Presentation on theme: "The Truman Presidency (#5 on the all-time list) Cold War Diplomacy – 1946 to 1952 Given the state of the world in 1946, what would the Turner Thesis tell."— Presentation transcript:
The Truman Presidency (#5 on the all-time list) Cold War Diplomacy – 1946 to 1952 Given the state of the world in 1946, what would the Turner Thesis tell Truman to do?
Post WW 2 Cold War Hysteria in America The result of mutual distrust and fear COLD WAR BATTLEGROUNDS: –WESTERN EUROPE - Germany, in general; Berlin in particular. –THIRD WORLD (developing or undeveloped) nations of the world “CONTAINMENT” –US must prevent the spread of Communism (domino theory). US entered an era of conformity & social conservatism unparalleled in history. US prosperity during the post-war years is a result of the growth of the “military-industrial complex” in which colossal defense spending occurred. Common assumption: Wherever the wafting stench of communism existed, the USSR was not far behind –ALL communist “movements” orchestrated by USSR.
12 March 1947: First Cold War “battle” - Greece and Turkey: The Instrument of Containment: The Truman Doctrine An internal communist threat to the democratic governments of Greece and Turkey President Truman asked Congress for “all aid necessary” to end the threat. Assumption: This was being orchestrated by the USSR. The TRUMAN DOCTRINE –an open-ended commitment to use US power anywhere and at anytime to oppose a real or perceived threat of communism “by internal armed minorities or external (Soviet) pressure”. Congress approved $400 million in aid to the Greece and Turkey. –The US dollar became the instrument of containment policy USSR withdrew from its attempts to aid the revolutionaries because they could not compete economically with the United States. US 1 – USSR 0
“POST WAR HOPES, COLD WAR FEARS” An Introduction to the 1950’s Domestic Issues –Conformity –Social conservatism –Morality issues –Gender roles –Peace and properity –Modernization –Post war “conversion” Technology, etc. Baby “boom” As you watch the documentary “Post War Hopes, Cold War Fears”, keep track of the information that is presented in your notebook under the two headings posted above. *There will be a test on the material upon completion of the documentary. Diplomatic Issues –Truman Doctrine –Marshall Plan –National Security Act of 1947 –Cold war battles Greece and Turkey Berlin USSR’s Bomb China turns Communist –Domestic fight vs. Communism
The Official Instrument of Containment: The European Recovery Plan, or, “Marshall Plan” - 1947 February 1948: The “Stalinization” of Czechoslovakia –US 1 – USSR 1 Economic impact of WW2 was similar to that of WW1 –Europe bankrupted by war –Economic chaos could lead to political extremism…again –only 1 extremist ideology (communism) in post war Europe (and it was popular throughout Europe) US would not repeat mistakes made after WW1. US must: –Fight against “hunger, poverty, deprivation and chaos” –Work “to revive the economy in the world so as to permit the emergence of political and social conditions in which freedom exists.” –This CONTAINS communism AND PROMOTES capitalism. a new “tradition” - No more “return to normalcy” 22 nations, including USSR, invited to participate in plan. –After refusing to give USSR aid in 1945 –USSR-”this is US ‘economic imperialism’…no thanks..” $5.3 Billion for broad European economic recovery $275 Million more for Greece and Turkey to challenge communist threats to their nations $463M for China, $7.5 B more at a later date –China: in civil war vs. communists since 1927.
The National Security Act of 1947 Department of Defense: –Combined Departments of War, Navy and Army and created Air Force Joint-Chiefs of Staff –created to coordinate military (Army, Navy, Marines, Air Force) National Security Council: –created to advise the President on issues of national security. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) –to deal with activity related to national security OUTSIDE of the USA. Selective Service Act: –Peace time draft raised armed forces to 2 MILLION soldiers…a FIRST! Voice of America –Radio broadcasts worldwide (US propaganda) NSC 68 (1950): –quadruple defense spending, increase size of armed forces to 3.5 million soldiers
1 st REAL Containment Test: Berlin, 1948 Potsdam agreement: separated Germany into 4 occupation zones (WITH NO BOUNDARIES) –GB, US, France and USSR Berlin, inside of the Soviet sector of Germany, also separated into 4 zones. To strengthen the German economy US, GB and France wanted to create a new German currency to be used in West Berlin. USSR: a threat to economically paralyze them. USSR closed off all means of ground transportation into West Berlin (allied sector) –“Berlin Blockade”: an attempt to remove western influence from the Soviet sector. Berlin Airlift: 24 June ‘48 –A HUGE RISK Soviets ended the blockade on 25 May ‘49. In 1949, the US, GB & France combined their zones into one: “West Germany”, and the Soviet zone became known as “East Germany” The MARSHALL PLAN WORKS (US 2-USSR 1)
The USSR and The Bomb SEPTEMBER 1949: The USSR tested their 1st atomic bomb. –Ended US monopoly on the bomb. –Many Americans were suspicious about how this could have happened. This led to : –Hunt for Communists in USA – In media, govt., military, education, etc. –“McCarthyism” –Educational focus on math and science –The Arms Race: SUPERBOMB –Julius and Ethel Rosenberg’s execution for espionage USA 2 – USSR 2
“THE FALL OF CHINA” (USSR 3 – USA 2) In 1927, Civil War between the COMMUNISTS (Mao Zedong) and NATIONALISTS (Chiang Kai-Shek) began, and ended in late 1949 with a Communist victory. Mao Zedong’s brand of communism is not Stalinism. It does NOT represent the spread of Soviet communism, but that didn’t matter to the US… This “convinced” Americans of the DOMINO THEORY and of MONOLITHIC COMMUNISM, intensifying the Cold War in Asia. Any communist activity in Asia would be blamed on China and USSR. There are now 2 Chinas: –Taiwan (Republic of China) and the People’s Republic of China (Communist) –Which China is represented in UN? The Republic of China (Taiwan)
Additional Containment Preparations: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): –Peacetime military alliance between US, Canada, 11 European nations –Article V : attack against one would be an attack against all –USSR created its own alliance: the “Warsaw Pact” OAS (Organization of American States): –a peacetime alliance in Western Hemisphere Point 4 Program: – extension of the Marshall Plan. –US economic aid to “underdeveloped nations” of the world*
The Second Red Scare Truman and the Democrats are now accused of “being soft on communism” because of the fall of China to communism and the USSR acquiring the “BOMB”
Fighting Domestic Communism 1947-Executive Order #9835 Also known as the “LOYALTY ORDER” Loyalty Board Federal Loyalty Oath Attorney General’s List of Subversive Organizations ADDITIONAL STEPS TO FLUSH OUT COMMUNISTS: McCarran Internal Security Act (vetoed by Truman) –communist organizations in America had to register with the federal government and people suspected of being communist were “monitored” –Congress overrides Truman’s veto House Un-American Affairs Committee (HUAC) EMERGENCE OF SEN. JOSEPH McCARTHY –Republicans attempt to discredit Truman/Democrats and regain control of Congress and the White House. –Sought to flush commies out of US State Department and US military that had been placed there by Democrats
The Korean War – 1950 to 1953 Korea: Japanese colony 1905-1945 After WW2 - divided at the 38 th parallel into an American sector (South Korea) and a Soviet sector (North Korea). Reunification of Korea was promised to occur by 1950. June 25, 1950North Korean army invaded South Korea in an attempt to reunify the 2 nations. WHY? 4 scenarios: –Probing action by Stalin/USSR against US –Probing action by Stalin/USSR against China –China behind North Korean invasion of South Korea –Independent decision by N. Korean leader Kim Il Sung First test for the UN: –US asked for resolution to send UN forces to liberate South Korea – NOT defeat and conquer North Korea. USSR boycott of UN due to China issue. Resolution passed! –UN forces sent to South Korea This conflict isn’t really a war, it’s a “police action” by UN September 10: South Korea (w/US soldiers) “fell” September 15: –UN troops (led by US forces) landed at Inchon to liberate the South October 10: UN forces under Gen. Douglas MacArthur liberated South Korea and pushed North Koreans to the 38 th parallel
Korea: 1950-1953 A (not so) slight deviation from containment policy… China’s warning (Oct. 1950) General Mac Arthur’s reaction (Oct. 1950) The results of MacArthur’s decision (to Nov. 25, 1950) China’s military response Results of China’s military response (Jan. 1951) MacArthur’s idea to “win the war” (against UN resolution) April 1951: MacArthur “relieved of duty” for insubordination July ’51 – battle line around 38 th parallel (original border) –Truman heavily criticized by not following MacArthur’s plan Stalemate (1951-1953); US public support for war decreased 1952 Presidential election: Eisenhower elected; conflict still not resolved by the time Truman leaves office Peace Talks in 1952 resulted in armistice on July 27, 1953. Conflict ends without “victory”, but Communism was contained. This was the original goal.
The Costs of the Korean War 33,000 dead, 104,000 wounded, 8000 missing –China/North Korea: more than 1,000,000 casualties –4,000,000 civilian deaths (75% in South Korea) Truman avoided war with China and possibility of nuclear conflict with USSR, but contained communism However, Truman was accused of “losing” China Impact of Korean conflict on Truman –Election of 1952: Truman OUT, Eisenhower IN. 1953: Stalin died – potential impact on the Cold War? 1953: War “ends” in an armistice, not a peace treaty 1954: US and South Korean Treaty of Mutual Defense –35,000 US forces remain in South Korea today US contained communism in Korea, BUT… …Asian nations lost trust in America…and communist political movements (with Chinese and Soviet support) in Asia became unmanageable for the United States
Early Cold War test: Origins of Cold War and Truman’s Cold War Battles “Iron Curtain Speech”, Stalin’s response, US and USSR perceptions of each other (Kennan and Novikov) Devised policy of containment using Kennan’s insight. Instruments of containment: US economic power under the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan; The National Security Act of 1947; Executive Order 9835; NATO and OAS; Point 4 Program Significant Cold War contests: –Greece and Turkey (’48) (Win) –Berlin Blockade and Airlift (’48 and ’49) (Win) –Czechoslovakia became communist (’48) (Loss) –USSR acquired the atomic bomb (Sept. ’49) (Loss) –China became communist (Nov. ’49) (Loss) –The Korean War (June ’50 to Nov. ’52) (Tie or Win?) How would you grade Truman’s handling of the Cold War?