Presentation on theme: "Post WW II Domestic Policies Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson"— Presentation transcript:
1Post WW II Domestic Policies Truman, Eisenhower, Kennedy, Johnson
2Truman’s Domestic Policies Domestically, Truman had two goals;1. Continue with Govt. Intervention / New Deal type policies: Govt. involvement in Soc, Ec. affairs; no return to Laissez Faire; didn’t want the end of the War to signal a retreat from principles of the Democratic party2. Introduce Civil Rights Reform: Wanted to continue and improve on what FDR had done with the FEPC
3Fair DealSent a set of proposals (27) to Congress for Economic and Social reforms which became known as his Fair Deal (Sept. 1945)Included:Expansion of Social Security and increasing benefitsIncrease Minimum Wage from 40c to 60c an hourPermanent FEPCGovt. provided low cost housing, slum clearanceFed. Govt. Public Works ProjectsLong range environmental planningGovernment promotion of scientific research / educationSubsidies for farmers
4Federal aid to education Government funded health insurancePrepaid medical careFunding for the St. Lawrence SeawayNationalization atomic energyBut the Fair Deal made little progress: Congress, even though under Democratic control, was reluctant to continue with or increase the high level of spending of WW II, and the high level of taxation
5The newly elected Republican Congress of 1946 was even more opposed to high spending and high taxes, favoring an end to more of the remaining New Deal agencies, and restoration of Laissez FaireCongress and the media was also upset with the the coal miners strike of 1946, organized by John Lewis / United Mine Workers (CIO joined with AFL in 1955 under George Meaney- AFL-CIO, ending 20 year feud) and the threatened railroad workers strikes in 1946: contributed further to disillusionment with reforms / opposition to heavy spending on social and economic programs…
6The Republican Party had campaigned on the slogan “Had Enough The Republican Party had campaigned on the slogan “Had Enough?” – of spending, strikes – promised another Harding-like “return to normalcy”The Republican Congress (80th Congress) of 1946 introduced a host of Conservative measures, including;Deregulation of economyTax Reduction for higher income groups with only a moderate decrease for the lower income groups
7The Taft-Hartley Act in 1947, or the Labor Management Relations Act, which: made the closed shop /union shops illegal,empowered the President to issue an injunction, against strikes that endangered national health or safety- this would be a mandatory “cooling off” period of 80 days.required union officials to take an oath declaring that they were not CommunistsMade labor liable for damages resulting from jurisdictional disputes among themselvesConsidered an anti-labor act; to withdraw the gains of the Wagner Act, Clayton Anti-Trust Act: condemned by union leaders as a “slave-labor law”
8Truman vetoed the bill but Congress over-rode his veto and passed it Congress did however pass an Employment Act in 1946 which allowed govt. spending on some projects that created jobs and added a Council of Economic Advisors, to be appointed by the president and responsible to him.Regarded by some as a middle of the road Congress – was neither extremely conservative/reactionary or liberal. It did not try to overturn the Social Security, or the TVA, even agreeing to expand them
9Civil RightsTruman consulted African American leaders about their concerns on Civil Rights and sep up a bi-racial Committee on Civil Rights to also advise himTold him that the main concerns were:LynchingPoll TaxDiscrimination in the job marketSegregation in the armed forces
10Recommended that a Civil Rights Commission be set up and that the federal govt. intervene with legislationBut Congress refused to consider legislation and so Truman was forced to take action himself:he issued an executive order integrating the armed forcesordered end to discrimination in the hiring of government employeespleaded with the Supreme Court to help end discrimination through its rulings on the 14th and 15th Amendments…. “judicial activism”
11Election of 1948Truman was nominated by the Democrats for re-election. Ran in his own right for the first time- had been serving out the remaining three and a half years of FDR’s last term (no longer possible after this with the 22nd amendment).Truman faced opposition from within his own party, from Dixiecrats (mostly from the South) to the Right and the Progressives to the Left
121. Dixiecrats: a right wing faction of mostly Southern Democrats who vigorously opposed his Civil Rights policies- saw Civil Rights reform as harmful to the Southern way of life.walked out of the Democratic party convention and formed their own party, the States Rights Democratic party and nominated their own presidential candidate Strom Thurmond, the then governor of South Carolina.
132. Discontent also reigned on the far left of the party, which complained of his ineffective domestic policies- too conservative- and his anti-Soviet foreign policy.Former vice-president Henry A. Wallace led his supporters out of the mainstream Democratic ranks to form a more liberal Progressive Party, which nominated him for the presidency.
14The republican candidate Dewey was the favorite to win It was felt that the Democrats would split their own voteTruman was somewhat unpopular because of the strikes, inflation, and was still in the shadow of FDR
15But he adopted a fighting strategy with his campaign slogan “Give them hell Harry” Called an emergency session of Congress to ask it once more to pass some of his Fair Deal policies - they refused. Hoped he had exposed how conservative Congress was and that the country needed a liberal president.Then he took the campaign to the people on a whistle stop tour– covered 20,000 miles by train –denounced the “do-nothing, good-for-nothing 80th Congress.”
16Truman won the election; huge upset, not expected to win: 24m votes (49.5%) to Dewey’s 22m votes (45.1%)Though the Chicago Daily Tribune had reported that he lost - hadn’t waited for the CA returns.
17Dixiecrats joined with Republicans to oppose many of its proposals. Democrats re-gained control of Congress: Truman sent his Fair Deal back hoping to have it passedDixiecrats joined with Republicans to oppose many of its proposals.The items which passed included:minimum wage was raised from 40c to 75c an hour:Social Security was expanded to include 10m more people and payments were to be increased by 75%flood control and irrigation projects initiateda National Housing Act was passed; slum clearance and construct of 810,000 new houses for low income familiesThe G.I. Bill - $43b in aid to veterans for Ed, Housing, Business
18But his Foreign Policy was causing dissention at home and his approval rating had fallen to 23% (China, Korea, firing McArthur)Accused by some of being soft on Communism…HUAC / Loyalty Board / McCarthy hearings tried to find Communists in his admin.
19As the election of 1952 approached, he decided not to run for reelection. Democrats nominated the governor of Illinois, Adlai Stevenson to run against the Republican candidate, General Dwight D. Eisenhower
20During the campaign, the Republicans accused the Democrats of “plunder at home and blunder abroad.” (strikes, inflation, China, Korea)Eisenhower won the Presidency with 55% of the vote. The Republicans also narrowly captured Congress.
21Eisenhower Administration Domestically, often a hands off policy, working behind the scenesHoped to combine Laissez Faire with some government intervention: called his approach to the economy and society “dynamic conservatism” or Modern Republicanism: “conservative when it comes to money, and liberal when it comes to human beings.”Concerned at first with balancing the budget
22Conservative/Reactionary Measures of his administration cut back on public works projectsencouraged private enterprise when possible, especially in the development of electric and nuclear powerdisapproved of the socialistic nature of the TVA (“creeping socialism”), though he did not dissolve it, he cut its fundinglowered farm subsidiesremoved the last limits on wage and price controlsopposed national health insurance
23but he did not undo all of the New Deal measures; among his liberal measures were: extension of Social Security to an additional 7m people, and of unemployment compensation to 4m more peopleincrease in the minimum wage from 75c to $1a new Department of Health, Education, and Welfare in 1953increased federally funded housing for low income familiesapproved of the building of the St. Lawrence Seaway, connecting the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean through CanadaFederal Highway Act of 1956, which set aside $32b over 10 years to build 41,000 miles of interstate highways- this would eventually cost $80b.
24Because he blended conservative with some liberal policies his administration is sometimes called a middle of the road administration.50s - A Decade of Tremendous Prosperity, like the 20s…See Notes on 50s…
25KennedyYoungest President (43) and first Catholic: defeated Nixon by a very narrow marginImpressed in the first TV Presidential DebatePromised a program of domestic legislation / activism, more ambitious than any since the New Deal, a program he described as the New Frontier.
26Unable to get much of his program passed: to many, he didn’t have a mandate / or clear endorsement from the American public, and though Democrats controlled both houses, the conservative Southerners were more likely to vote with the Republicans than with Kennedy (Civil Rights)His proposals were held up in committee- education, medical reform, and never reached Congress.He did not accomplish a great deal in terms of domestic legislation, but did contribute something else - idealism (revived liberal ideas).
27His efforts to improve the economy were his most noteworthy successes he initiated a series of tariff negotiations with foreign governments - “the Kennedy Round” – to reduce barriers to international trade, in an effort to stimulate American exports.increased spending for the defense and for the space program which poured millions into the economy and increased employment. (flexible response)Area Redevelopment Act channeled federal funds into needy areasminimum wage was raised from $1 to $1.25 per hourprevented increase in price of steel - aim was to keep inflation down
28a major tax cut passed the house in 1962 but was not approved by the Senate until 1964. Housing Act of 1961, offered $4.9b in federal grants to cities for the preservation of open spaces, the development of mass transit systems, and the subsidization of middle income housing – boosted economyCivil Rights………laterAssassination November 1963, Dallas; Lee Harvey Oswald. Shot by Jack Ruby. Warren Commission concluded that Oswald had acted alone and not in a conspiracy of any kind. Critics maintained the investigations were hastily concluded (many conspiracy theories)
30Opposite to Kennedy in personality- coarse, crude, poor public speaker Opposite to Kennedy in personality- coarse, crude, poor public speaker. But like Kennedy he believed in the active use of power, and he proved in the end more effective than Kennedy in translating his goals into realityBetween 1963 and 1966 he compiled the most impressive legislative record of any president since FDR.He was aided by the tidal wave of emotion that followed the death of President Kennedy, which helped him win passage of many New Frontier proposals as a memorial to the slain leader
31But he also constructed a remarkable reform program of his own, which became known as the “Great Society.”He won approval for much of it through his skillful lobbying, his skill as a “coalition builder,” drawing together different groups.Won Presidential election of 1964, defeating Barry Goldwater, took this as a mandate to introduce his own program.
32Was determined as president to help the groups identified by Michael Harrington in his book The Other America: To eliminate the “pockets of poverty,”– to do so he announced that he would wage an “unconditional war on poverty.” (housing, Soc Sec., Health, Education, Minimum Wage)
34Overall Goals Thematic; Govt. responsibility / Commitment to continue Civil Rights ReformWar on Poverty: Social Security, Health.. protect vulnerable… Minimum Wage, EducationEnvironment and ConservationImmigration ReformConsumer Protection
351964Civil Rights Act: Banned discrimination in public accommodations, in federally assisted programs, and in employment, based on race, religion, national origin, or sex…(Title VII); gave federal government new power to enforce desegregation and prosecute voting rights violations (restored 14th Amend)24th Amendment: outlawed the Poll TaxEconomic Opportunity Act; Launched the ‘war on poverty,’ creating nationwide federal programs such as Head Start, the Job Corps, and VISTA, within the Office of Economic OpportunityWilderness Preservation Act; Protected 9.1 million acres of national forest land from commercial development
361965Elementary and Secondary Education Act; huge federal aid package for educationMedical Care Act; Federally funded health care for the elderly (Medicare) and for welfare recipients (Medicaid)Voting Rights Act; Banned Literacy Tests; voting registration placed under federal control. Success; By the 70s African American voter registration in the South increased substantiallyOmnibus Housing Act; Provided funds to build and subsidize low-income housing
37National endowment for the arts and for the humanities; Provided aid to individual artists and arts organizationsWater Quality Act; Required states to clean up interstate waters within their boundariesImmigration Act; Ended discriminatory ethnic quotasHigher Education Act; Provided student scholarships and loans
381966Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act; Set standards for auto and tire manufacturingMinimum wage law; Raised the rate from $1.25 to $1.40 an hourTruth in Packaging Act; Established standards for accurate labeling of foods, drugs, cosmetics, and household itemsModel cities ActFunded the clearing of slums and building of new housing projects, recreational facilities and mass transit
39ConclusionThe Great Society reforms represented a continuing commitment by the federal government to accept responsibility for the well being of its citizens, especially the poor and vulnerable (young and old)…..Wilson, FDR, Truman, KennedyRevival of Liberal Reforms - like FDR’s 100 days in the amount of reform legislation.Made important contributions both to the welfare of the specific groups they were designed to help and to the well being of society and the economy as a whole.
40Involves a dramatic increase in federal spending; return to planned deficits The governments anti poverty efforts- and the economic growth of the period- saw the most substantial decrease in poverty in the US of any period in the nation’s history; in 1959, 22% of the American people lived below the official established poverty line; by 1969, only 12% remained below.But unfortunately the War on Poverty was jeopardized by spending on the Vietnam War, and eventually compromised
41New Deal vs. Great Society Context: Background Circumstances: FDR dealing with catastrophe / depression / need for urgency…LBJ dealing with a more prosperous society, following 50s…Both believed in gov. Responsibility / interventionFDR more concerned with jobs, dole, reform of banks and stock market…..FERA, PWA, WPA, Truth in Securities, SEC, Glass Steagall, FDIC etc…innovations of Soc Sec, AAA, TVA….features of New Deal…….unemployed, youth, elderly, poorLBJ concerned with these but also with;Civil Rights: FDR backed off, not wanting to lose support of Dixiecrats for New Deal
42Pockets of Poverty, not general, wide spread poverty, dealt specifically with inner cities, minoritiesImmigration: FDR couldn’t worry about this during DepressionEnvironment and Conservation: New Deal / AAA contributed but again LBJ had the luxury of being able to deal with Water, Cities, Highways etc and many of these highways had been added in the 50sEducation; more committed; had more money to spend, and not dealing with a depression……
43Warren Court Decisions on Key Issues of the 1960s (other than “Brown”) Reapportionment, School Prayer, Rights of the Accused1. ReapportionmentGomillion v. Lightfoot, 1960; Outlawed racial gerrymandering in case involving the city limits of Tuskegee, Alabama
44Baker v. Carr, 1962; Established federal authority to oversee that state voting districts ensure equal representation for all citizens; the ruling opened the door to Supreme Court involvement in what previously had been seen as a ‘political’ issue outside the court’s jurisdictionWesberry v. Sanders, 1964; Required that states redraw their voting districts for the U.S. Congress according to population; each district had to have roughly the same number of people, so every citizen’s vote carried the same weight, according to the ‘one person, one vote’ principle
45Reynolds v. Sims, 1964; Applied the ‘one person, one vote’ standard to their state legislatures, requiring state elective districts to be reapportioned; the ruling also demanded the apportionment by population of both houses of a bicameral state legislature
462. School PrayerEngel v. Vitale, 1962; Ruled unconstitutional a non-denominational prayer drafted by the State of New York and read voluntarily in school classrooms; the decision banned prayer in public schoolsAbington v. Schempp, 1963; Banned Bible reading and other religions exercises in public schools, saying this constituted the government establishment of religion
473. Rights of the AccusedGideon v. Wainwright, 1963; Established that people accused of a crime have the right to a lawyer, even if they cannot afford oneEscobedo v. Illinois, 1964; Ruled that one has the right to a lawyer from the time of arrest or when one becomes the subject of a criminal investigationMiranda v. Arizona, 1966; Required that the accused be informed of their right to a lawyer and their right not to testify against themselves, at the time of arrest
48Civil Rights 1940s, 1950s, 1960s Background Gains Emancipation, 1863 Civil War Amendments, 13, 14, 15Reconstruction: 10 years of change
49ButRedemption – Democrats regained control of Southern legislaturesSharecropping – freed slaves were no better off than before slavery endedKKK – intimidation, prevented freed men from voting…..denied 14th Amendment rightsLiteracy Test, Grandfather Clause, Poll Tax – deprived freed men of 15th Amendment rights
50Jim Crowe Laws – segregation laws Plessey v Ferguson (Separate but Equal Doctrine) – gives force of law to segregationDe Jure Segregation in South (by law)Se Facto Segregation in North (in reality, in actuality, fact of life, customary segregation) (Race Riots, Segregation)Segregation of Armed ForcesLynching was commonplace“Last to be Hired, first to be Fired” (especially during Great Depression)
51Beginning of Civil Rights Progressive EraWashingtonDu Bois, NAACP, Legal ChallengesMarcus GarveyJane Adams, Ida B. Wells-Barnett1940sA Philip Randolph, MOWM, Double V, CORENAACP; Smith v AllwrightFDR’s Black Cabinet, FEPC in response to MOWM
52FDR put New Deal before Civil Rights (didn’t move on Desegregation of Armed Forces, or Federal Anti-Lynching law, faced criticism of discrimination in hiring practices of New Deal agencies, such as TVA)Truman’s Commission on Civil RightsDesegregation of Armed ForcesEnd to discrimination in government hiring practicesEnlists aid of Supreme Court in battle for Civil Rights
53Eisenhower; 1950sOpposed Civil Rights reform – timing was wrong (Cold War), and pace needed to be a lot slower: defied by Supreme Court1954: Brown vs Board of Education: ordered desegregation of public schools “with all deliberate speed”, followed by other public facilities (Liberal Warren Court): Eisenhower not happy with the decision, or with Warren, whose appointment he said was the “worse damn fool mistake I ever made.”NAACP attorney, Thurgood Marshall successfully fought the Brown Case
54Warren’s Explanation: "Does segregation of children in public schools solely on the basis of race, even though the physical facilities and other tangible factors may be equal, deprive children of the minority group of equal educational opportunities? We believe it does. To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may afflict their hearts and minds in a way very unlikely ever to be undone. We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of 'separate but equal' has no place. Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal.”Warren: Brown v Board of Ed., 1954
55Southern Manifesto: signed by 101 Southern Congressmen, asserting that Supreme Court Brown decision was unconstitutional and unacceptable: LB Johnson was one of three who did not sign it – shows how unpopular it was in south and how difficult it would be to implement it…: Montgomery (Alabama) Bus Boycott: Rosa Parks refuses to give up her seat: Arrested for violation of segregation ordinance: led to boycott: emergence of 27 year old Baptist Minister Martin Luther King as leader of Civil Rights Movement: lasted 381 days (used taxis, church buses): finally a federal court ruled discrimination on buses illegal; a great success for the movement, added to “Brown” success
561957: King forms SCLC (Southern Christian Leadership Conference), with Rev. Ralph Abernathy, to continue with momentum, challenge for Civil Rights, using peaceful, non-violent, but active protest (Gandhi, Thoreau and Civil Disobedience)1957: Little Rock Arkansas: Gov. Orval Faubus used National Guard to prevent 9 African American students entering Central High School. Opposed Integration. Difficulty of implementing laws: Eisenhower forced to implement Browne decision and send federal troops (101st Airborne) and federalized the National Guard, to protect the 9 students
57Kennedy: 1960sKennedy promised Civil Rights reform but held off – Dixiecrats – wanted to pass other New Frontier measures1960: Student Sit In’s, organized by SNCC (Student Non Violent Coordinating Committee): began in Greensboro, North Carolina, at a Woolworths lunch counter: spread to other student cities: restaurants conceded: success. King convinces SNCC to use only non-violent methods1960; Freedom Rides (organized by CORE): Vicious attacks on freedom riders captured on TV. Kennedy administration forced to step in (slow to follow up on his election promises) and orders ICC to desegregate interstate transportation; success
581962: James Meredith had to receive federal army protection, ordered by Kennedy, so he could attend the University of Mississippi: success1963: George Wallace, Gov. of Alabama, tried to prevent integration of University of Alabama, stood in doorway blocking African American student entry: federal troops forced desegregation…success
591963 (April); King organized huge protests in Birmingham, Alabama, “the most segregated city in America.” Vicious treatment of protestors, ordered by police chief Eugene “Bull” Connor, captured on TV, seen by Kennedy, forced him to respond to his campaign promise to write a major Civil Rights Bill, sent it to Congress; King arrested: wrote “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” (freedom now, to wait means never, freedom would not come easily, had to be demanded, non-violently)
601963 (August) King organized huge March on Washington to help speed up the stalled Civil Rights Bill. 250,000 attended. Famous “I Have a Dream” speech. King won Nobel Peace Prize in (Kennedy Assassinated Nov. 1963)1964: Freedom Summer: huge voter registration campaign in south – killing by KKK of 3 student volunteers in Mississippi, total of 15 volunteers killed: failed, only 1,600 registrations in summer months
611964: Civil Rights Act: Johnson got it passed: coalition builder: Comprehensive bill, banned discrimination in public accommodation or employment based on race, religion, national origin, or sex…(Title VII)1964: 24th Amendment: outlawed the Poll Tax1965: Voting Rights Act: after march on Selma, Alabama: Banned Literacy Tests; voting registration and process placed under federal control. Success; By the 70s African American voter registration in the South increased substantially…
621968: Civil Rights Act: banned discrimination in sale or renting of housing Johnson adds Affirmative Action principle to help African Americans recover from effects of past discrimination (includes quota system for hiring and college admissions) (Proposition 209 abolished affirmative action in college admissions; prohibit public institutions from considering race, sex, or ethnicity )
63Civil Rights movement had succeeded in dismantling legal Segregation (housing, education, hiring), and restoring Voting Rights – But….Poverty continued… “slow pace of change” - how was this problem going to be tackled? Civil Rights movement split / splintered over this issue….Stokely Carmichael became the new chairman of SNCC, he discouraged white membership and broke with King and SCLC, and demanded “Black Power” through black militancy….frustration with continuing poverty among African Americans1966: emergence of Black Panthers for Self Defense, led by Huey Newton and Bobby Seale: goal was to protect African American community from police brutality. Merged with SNCC in 1968.
64: Long Hot Summers: race riots in Harlem (NY), 1964, Watts (CA), 1965, 22 different cities in 1967, supported by Black Power / Panthers, movement away from non-violent tacticsThe Kerner Report /Commission reported that the riots were the result of the Slow Pace of Change, and result of a new militancy in the Civil Rights movement: recommended the elimination of racial barriers in jobs, housing, education, and a massive spending campaign to clear inner city slums…Emergence anther militant group – the Nation of Islam / Black Muslims, led by Elijah Muhammad, calling for Black Nationalism, militancy, black separation / racism, self defense, self reliance,
65Malcolm X, originally a Black Muslim, broke with Elijah Muhammad and expressed support for King and his beliefs in harmony, integration, and non violent methods: Malcolm X assassinated in February 1965King: campaigns to end residential segregation, poverty, against economic injustice and inequality, spoke out against Vietnam War: assassinated by James Earl Ray, April 4, 1968, which set off demonstrations in 40 citiesCivil Rights Movement never the same, split, leaderless..
66Thurgood Marshall appointed to Supreme Court in 1967 – first African American supreme court justice Overall: the Civil Rights Movement had gotten legal segregation abolished. Desegregation of armed forces, more opportunities in terms of jobs, education, housing, voting rights restored.But Poverty, Racism, did not end. Movement split, lost its leader, and fizzled out….the nation became more concerned with Vietnam, Nixon did not support Civil Rights reform and slowed the pace of change even more…..held up funding of projects that would have helped….
67Civil Rights Essay Questions May be on achievements of Civil Rights movement decade by decade….May be on methods…..court cases (Brown), sit ins, freedom rides, boycotts (buses), demonstrations / marches (Birmingham, Washington)May be on contributions of each president: FDR, Truman, Eisenhower (reluctant) – Warren --Kennedy, Johnson to Civil Rights Reform….or achievements in each decade….
68May be on success and failure of Civil Rights movement or on reasons for successes (Presidents support, Leadership / King, Media..)May be on splintering / split of movement in mid 60s (slow pace of change, disagreement over methods, emergence of Black Power, Black Panthers, impatience / frustration, assassination of King / leaderless movement, society moved on to Vietnam to Other issues, election of Nixon / conservative, little interest in Civil Rights issues….Southern Strategy / soft-pedaling)