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Chapter 44 A Different Kind of World: Entering the Nuclear Age, 1946-1952.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 44 A Different Kind of World: Entering the Nuclear Age, 1946-1952."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 44 A Different Kind of World: Entering the Nuclear Age, 1946-1952

2 The Shadow of Cold War Legacies of World War II Atomic bomb can destroy civilization Moral impact of holocaust U.S. and the USSR only real victors U.S. and USSR animosity Communist ideology vs. democracy U.S. recognition of USSR a practical measure Warming of relations in World War II FDR hopes to improve relations FDR understands USSR postwar security concerns in Eastern Europe & need for a buffer

3 Shadow of Cold War Shadow of Cold War (cont.’d) Insoluble problems FDR’s death increases suspicion between nations Truman sees USSR as still seeking revolution Truman does follow Yalta policy Poland reveals weakness of Yalta policy Truman does not trust Soviets Soviets refuse free elections in Poland Truman applauds Churchill’s “iron curtain” speech Truman fires Henry Wallace who favors appeasement

4 Shadow of Cold War Shadow of Cold War (cont.’d) Containment and the Truman Doctrine State Department Soviet expert George Kennan U.S. must contain Russian expansion Predicts Soviets will not push to point of war Truman Doctrine: military aid to fight communism $400 million for Greece and Turkey Marshall Plan Secretary of State George C. Marshall U.S. aid to help reconstruct Europe U.S. offers aid to all Europe nations Soviets reject offer, U.S. aids 16 nations

5 Shadow of Cold War Shadow of Cold War (cont.’d) Freezing the lines Containment works in Europe U.S. saves West Berlin with airlift Creation of NATO, Warsaw pact, 1949 Nuclear arms race underway, 1949

6 Domestic Politics Under Truman Truman struggles with domestic issues U.S. has inflation, housing shortages, labor disputes Truman seems inferior compared to FDR Republicans gain control of Congress in 1946 Taft-Hartley Act outlaws “closed shops” Labor rallies to Truman Truman vetoes 80 anti-New Deal laws Fair Deal Truman’s health plan fails Truman’s civil rights legislation fails Truman integrates armed forces, civil service through executive order

7 Domestic Politics Under Truman Domestic Politics Under Truman (cont.’d) Four Candidates in 1948 Democrats: Harry S. Truman Progressives: Henry A. Wallace States’ Rights or Dixiecrats: Strom Thurmond Republicans: Thomas E. Dewey Give ’Em Hell, Harry Polls predict easy Dewey victory Dewey runs conservative campaign Truman vigorously attacks Republicans Truman wins with narrow popular margin

8 Success in Japan, Conflict with China Containment and China Truman must focus on foreign affairs Philippines, Japan are U.S. Allies MacArthur administers occupied Japan U.S. aid helps rebuild Japan Rejected option in China Chiang Kai Shek’s Nationalists vs. Mao Zedong’s Communists Policy makers divided over whom U.S. should support Marshall believes Zedong independent of Soviets China Lobby Few Americans willing to support Zedong Madame Chiang garners U.S. support China Lobby inundates U.S. with propaganda Chiang too weak to defeat Communists Flees to Taiwan

9 Success in Japan, Conflict with China Success in Japan, Conflict with China (cont.’d) Korean Conflict Containment line unclear in Asia 1950, Communists in North Korea overrun South Korea Truman reacts with force Gets U.S. sanction for police action MacArthur leads U.N. forces to retake peninsula Chinese send troops, war stalemates on 38th parallel MacArthur’s comeuppance U.S. unable to conclude Korean hostilities MacArthur publicly challenges Truman policy Truman fires MacArthur Americans express shock, sorrow

10 Years of Tension Truman feeds fear of communism with loyalty oath “Red Baiting” of Henry Wallace fuels fear Republicans use fear of communism Alger Hiss and Richard Nixon Hiss advisor to FDR at Yalta Whitaker Chambers accuses Hiss of Communism Nixon pursues case Hiss convicted of perjury

11 Years of Tension Years of Tension (cont.’d) Senator Joe McCarthy of Wisconsin McCarthy needs political issue Claims there are Communists in state department Many believe false accusations McCarthy ruins careers McCarthyism Eisenhower afraid to praise Marshall McCarran Internal Security Act McCarthy accuses army of communism Senate censors McCarthy

12 Years of Tension Years of Tension (cont.’d) Eisenhower becomes president of Columbia Eisenhower hates academic life Moderate Republicans influence Eisenhower Eisenhower decides he has duty to run for president Campaign of 1952 Republicans run Eisenhower Democrats run Adlai E. Stevenson Stevenson’s intellectualism hurts him Eisenhower promises to go to Korea and end war Eisenhower wins in landslide Eisenhower goes to Korea Eisenhower threatens to use bomb Bluff works, war ends in 1953

13 Discussion Questions What were the dynamics of history that led the U.S. and the USSR to go from allies to enemies? What was the Marshall Plan? What was its impact on European and Soviet relations? Examine the Korean War. What was the United States’ part in this conflict? What was the purpose of this war? What led to the rise of McCarthyism? What caused its fall?

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