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1 International history- exam review June 11 th 2012.

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1 1 International history- exam review June 11 th 2012

2 2 Theme 1: The origins of the cold war after world war ii The USA and the problems of Europe: economic reconstruction and political challenges The policies of the USSR towards Western and Eastern Europe US policies and Containment: the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, the Berlin Blockade, the formation of NATO The historical debate: traditional, revisionist, post-revisionist

3 3 Essay 1 1.To what extent were the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan the major causes of the Cold War in Europe in the years 1945 to 1949?

4 4 Mark scheme Assess the significance of the Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan in causing the Cold War Revisionist- Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan were responsible for increasing tensions Post-revisionist- The two policies were misjudged by the USSR Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan same objective: contain communism Other facts to consider: Actions of Stalin in Eastern Europe, Churchill’s Iron Curtain Speech, the Berlin Blockade

5 5 Essay 2 2.‘The Cold War in Europe was caused by the superpowers’ misjudgment and misunderstanding of each other.’ How far do you agree with this view?

6 6 Mark scheme Expected to assess the factor which caused the outbreak of the Cold War Historical debate: traditional, revisionist, post-revisionist Misjudgments/Misunderstandings- West’s failure to understand the USSR’s desire for security in Eastern Europe, USSR misjudged the motives behind the Marshall Plan and Bizonia, both sides misjudged each other in the Berlin Blockade To counter the assertion candidates may refer to Soviet responsibility in eastern Europe and the US policy of containment

7 7 Essay 3 3.Consider the view that the USSR was more responsible than the USA for the outbreak and development of the Cold War in the period from 1945 to 1949.

8 8 Mark scheme Assess the reasons behind the outbreak of the Cold War Traditional- Soviet expansion, failure of Stalin to meet his obligations agreed at Yalta, Communist takeover of Eastern Europe (Czechoslovakia), Soviet pressure on Turkey and Greece, Berlin Blockade Revisionist- Truman’s aggressive style, Truman’s role at Potsdam, the Truman Doctrine, the Marshall Plan, creation of NATO Post-revisionist- both sides misinterpreted and misunderstood the motives of the others

9 9 Essay 4 4.‘Strategic rather than ideological reasons best explain the development of the Cold War in the period from 1945 to 1949.’ How far do you agree?

10 10 Mark scheme Discuss the development of the Cold War to 1949 Refer to traditional, revisionist, post-revisionist Strategic factors- Stalin wanted to protect the USSR from future attack through control of Eastern Europe, USA motivated to protect Western Europe from Soviet influence Ideological factors- Stalin’s attempts to spread communism, Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan were both attempts to prevent the spread of communism

11 11 Theme 2: The Globalization of the cold war The Asia-Pacific region: the Korean War, the Vietnam War Latin America: revolution in Cuba, Cuban Missile Crisis The Middle East: Arab Israeli conflicts Détente and the Second Cold War:

12 12 Essay 1 1.‘The outcome of the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 was a victory for both the USA and USSR.’ How far do you agree?

13 13 Mark scheme Expected to study the Cuban Missile Crisis of October 1962 Victory for the US- JFK was able to get Soviet missiles removed from Cuba, global media viewed the US as the victor for forcing the USSR to back down Victory for the USSR- US agreed to remove Jupiter missiles from Turkey, US promised not to invade Cuba (removed threat in Turkey, ensured survival of communist Cuba)

14 14 Essay 2 2.‘The USA and USSR did not globalize the Cold War; they simply were dragged unwillingly into regional conflicts’. How far do you agree?

15 15 Mark scheme Between 1950 and 1980 a series of regional conflicts emerged which forced the US and USSR to take sides (from regional to global) Korea , Indo-China , Cuba , The Congo , Angola May argue that each or some of the above were purely regional conflicts into which the superpowers became involved US policy: 1950s and 1960s- domino theory and the fear of communism, two superpowers worked together to limit regional conflict

16 16 Essay 3 3.How far was the USA’s policy of containment responsible for the globalization of the Cold War in the period from 1950 to 1985?

17 17 Mark scheme Expected to explain the global expansion of the Cold War from 1950 NSC-68 and the Truman Doctrine forced the US into a global stance against the development of communism Korean War, Vietnam War, opposition to communism in Latin America and Africa Containment helped globalize the Cold War (domino theory) Counter view- both Soviet and Chinese expansionist policy forced the US to react to communist actions (Congo, Angola, Afghanistan)

18 18 Essay 4 4.‘Neither the USSR nor the USA gained anything from involvement in the Arab-Israeli Conflict from 1948 to the Camp David Accords.’ How far do you agree?

19 19 Mark scheme Assess the nature of the Arab-Israeli conflict and its link to the globalization of the Cold War US- main supporter of Israel USSR- main supporter of Arab States such as Syria and Egypt Yom Kippur War of Camp David Accords- peace between Sadat of Egypt and Begin of Israel (diplomacy was a triumph for the US and followed Kissinger’s successful diplomacy at the end of the Yom Kippur War)

20 20 Theme 3- The Crisis of communism and the end of the cold war The Sino-Soviet conflict: origins and main features The USSR: challenges to Communism, reasons for the collapse of the USSR, effects of the collapse on Eastern Europe, the West, China China: challenges to Communism, reasons for the crisis, response to the crisis, effects of the crisis on USA, Russia End of the Cold War: Western and Communist views

21 21 Essay 1 1.How far were Gorbachev’s policies the cause of the collapse of the USSR?

22 22 Mark scheme Expected to assess Gorbachev’s polices, both domestic and foreign Glasnost- helped undermine the central control of the Soviet Union Perestroika- failed to solve the economic ills of the Soviet economy May counter this argument with reference to the long term ills of the Soviet economy By the time Gorbachev took power, matters had become so dire that his policies had little effect Rise of national self-determination

23 23 Essay 2 2.‘Internal factors were more important than external factors in explaining the collapse of the USSR in 1991.’ How far do you agree?

24 24 Mark scheme Assess the reasons for the collapse of the USSR (compare internal against external) Internal factors- economic and social collapse (exacerbated by Gorbachev’s policies of Glasnost and Perestroika), rise of nationalism within the USSR (Baltic states, Ukraine) External factors- the adverse effects of the arms race on the USSR, collapse of communist rule in eastern Europe, fall of Berlin Wall

25 25 Essay 3 3.‘Reagan was more responsible than Gorbachev for the end of the Cold War.’ How far do you agree?

26 26 Mark scheme Assess the roles of the leaders of the two superpowers Reagan- US defense build-up from 1981, SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative), held out for major weapons concessions from Gorbachev which led to the INF Treaty Gorbachev- reforms led to disarmament, perestroika and glasnost created a new atmosphere for cooperation

27 27 Essay 4 4. ‘Deng Xiaoping's reforms created more problems than they solved in China.’ How far do you agree?

28 28 Mark scheme Assess the impact of Deng’s reforms Economic Reforms- brought an end to the command economy of the Mao era, created Special Economic Zones (SEZ) and Town/village Enterprises (TEZ), collectivization came to an end By 1991 China had begun a process of rapid industrialization which increased the wealth Negatives- caused mass migration to the cities and led to economic inequalities in economic development between east and west China, pollution, growth in opposition to communist rule

29 29 Theme 4- the nuclear arms race, The spread and development of nuclear weapons: by country, type, delivery system The development of deterrence theories: massive retaliation, MAD, flexible response The control of nuclear weapons: test-ban treaties, limits on nuclear powers, SALT I and II, ABM, START I and II, limits on non-nuclear powers, Non-Proliferation Treaty The historical debate: effects of the Nuclear Arms Race on the Cold War, the consequences

30 30 Essay 1 1.How far was the development of new strategies of deterrence by the USA, from 1950 to 1989, a response to the development of Soviet nuclear weaponry?

31 31 Mark scheme Assess the factors which led to the development of different strategies of nuclear deterrence by the USA from 1950 to 1989 In response to Soviet nuclear program- Massive retaliation, MAD, flexible response May mention the decision to upgrade theatre nuclear weapons such as the deployment of Pershing II and Cruise missiles in western Europe Changes in policy were a response to Soviet nuclear developments

32 32 Essay 2 2.‘The Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968 was more important than the SALT treaties of the 1970s in controlling the growth of nuclear weapons.’ How far do you agree?

33 33 Mark scheme Engage in comparative analysis Non-Proliferation Treaty of attempted to limit the spread of nuclear weapons outside the limited nuclear club, by 1991 the spread had been limited, Israel and Pakistan SALT treaties- limited the development of ABMs but did not halt the nuclear arms race, by 1991 intermediate nuclear systems had been developed by both sides, SALT II was never ratified by the US Senate, limited the number of nuclear weapons compared to the Non-Proliferation Treaty

34 34 Essay 3 3.How successful were the two superpowers in controlling the development and spread of nuclear weapons in the period from 1949 to 1991?

35 35 Mark scheme Assess the role of the two superpowers from the explosion of the Soviet atomic bomb until the end of the Cold War Partial Nuclear Test Ban Treaty of 1963, Nuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty of 1968, the SALT treaties of 1972 and 1978 and the Intermediate Nuclear Arms treaties of the 1980s under Reagan/Bush and Gorbachev Arms race- H-Bomb, ICBM, SLBM, ABM, MIRV Control- both powers attempted to limit the testing from the 1960s

36 36 Essay 4 4.How important were SALT I and SALT II to the limitation of nuclear weapons in the period from 1970 to 1989?

37 37 Mark scheme Discuss the significance of the SALT treaties in the nuclear arms race Treaties were the first step in controlling the development of weapons SALT I- limited the development of ABM systems SALT II- limited the development of weapons, but was not ratified by the Senate Soviet invasion of Afghanistan- both superpowers develop theatre weapons (SS20, Pershing II)

38 38 Theme 5- the development of the international economy The growth and problems of the international economy to 1991: reasons, main features, consequences The development of international economic policies: the World Bank and IMF, the Group of Seven, GATT Issues in trade: free trade versus protectionism; the dominant role of the USA in the world economy; economic development in Japan

39 39 Essay 1 1. ‘Japan’s economic success was more to do with domestic policies than the changing nature of the international economy.’ How far do you agree with this view?

40 40 Mark scheme Assess the reasons for the rapid economic growth of Japan from 1950 onwards Domestic policies- creation of large cartels geared towards manufacturing with a work ethic associated with company loyalty, dominance of the Liberal Party gave political stability and developed pro-business policies, Ministry of International Trade and Investment Other factors- changing economic scene with the growth of the global economy, lack of investment and strategies by trade rivals

41 41 Essay 2 2.To what extent were the oil crises of 1973 and 1979 the major problem facing the international economy during the 1970s?

42 42 Mark scheme Expected to assess the Oil Crisis of 1973 and 1979 Resulted in a major recession in the western developed world and saw the rise of oil producing countries associated with OPEC Other factors- collapse of the fixed exchange rates, the abandonment of Keynesian demand-management economic policies The 1970s also saw the rapid development of Third World debt; growth and consolidation of the EEC, establishment of West Germany and Japan as major world economies

43 43 Essay 3 3.How far did the USA’s role in the world economy change in the period from 1945 to 1991?

44 44 Mark scheme Assess the role of the US in the world economy over time the US dominated the world economy Evidence- Bretton Woods Conference, dollar was the benchmark for the international exchange rate, World Bank was based in Washington DC, role in the IMF Threats to US dominance- recovery of West Germany and Japan, creation of the EEC and European Union, rise of Asian Tigers of the Pacific Rim

45 45 Essay 4 4.‘The World Bank and IMF have ensured economic stability in the international economy in the years from 1945 to 1991.’ How far do you agree?

46 46 Mark scheme Discuss the role of the World Bank and IMF in the development of the international economy Both institutions were central pillars of the Bretton Woods system Helped stabilize the international economy by supporting countries in economic difficulty and in encouraging economic development in the developing world Critics- forcing developing countries into severe economic policies which have caused social hardship and political instability

47 47 Theme 6- The Third world Overview of decolonization The emergence of the Third World : Bandung Conference, the Non- Aligned Movement, the formation of UNCTAD The moves to establish a New International Economic Order: the Group of 77, the rise of OPEC, the Brandt Report The rise of Islamic Fundamentalism The Third World in the 1980s: the Debt Crisis, the emergence of the Asia Tigers economies, famine in Africa, the decline of OPEC Arguments for and against international aid and the role of multi-national corporations

48 48 Essay 1 1. ‘International aid to developing countries encouraged corruption and did little to relieve poverty.’ How far do you agree with this view of international aid from 1960 to 1991?

49 49 Mark scheme Assess the impact of international aid on the developing world between 1960 and 1991 Evidence- aid to the developing world by the superpowers was part of their attempt to gain influence in the Cold War, much of the aid was in the form of military equipment, inflamed regional conflicts causing war, did little to aid the relief of poverty Evidence- may also refer to the kleptocracy in the developing world where aid enriched corrupt leaders Counter facts- aid by NGOs did relieve poverty (Live Aid 1985)

50 50 Essay 2 2.How significant was the Bandung Conference of 1955 to the non- aligned movement?

51 51 Mark scheme Assess the reasons behind the development of the non-aligned movement in the post 1950 era and the importance of the Bandung Conference Conference should be seen in the context of the Cold War and decolonization States such as Indonesia, Burma, India, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka laid the foundation for an international organization separate form the US dominated West and Communist Bloc Bandung Conference was successful in creating a non-aligned movement which survived throughout the post-1955 period Created the Third World as a separate entity from the two superpowers

52 52 Essay 3 3.To what extent were the problems facing the Third World, in the period from 1960 to 1991, caused by the activities of multi-national corporations?

53 53 Mark scheme Assess the role of multi-national corporations in causing problems in the Third World Evidence- exploitation of natural resources, exploitation of labor with corporations such as Nike using child and female labor, exploitation of political tension to gain economic advantage Counter facts- political corruption, natural disasters, political instability, population growth, instances of multi- national corporations helping to develop the Third World (Mexico, Nigeria)

54 54 Essay 4 4.To what extent was the decolonization of Africa a success to 1991?

55 55 Mark scheme Assess the success of decolonization in Africa Evidence- lack of bloodshed associated with decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa, creation of stable states such as Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, and Tanzania Counter facts- war in Nigeria and the Congo, corruption and political instability, poor economic management


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