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Cold War and Truman APUSH McElhaney.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War and Truman APUSH McElhaney."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War and Truman APUSH McElhaney

2 Essay Question “Harry S. Truman was a realistic, pragmatic president who skillfully led the American people against the menace posed by the Soviet Union.” Assess the validity of this generalization for President Truman's foreign policy from 1945 to 1953.

3 AP Outline The United States and the Early Cold War
Origins of the Cold War Truman and containment The Cold War in Asia: China, Korea, Vietnam, Japan Diplomatic strategies and policies of the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrations The Red Scare and McCarthyism Impact of the Cold War on American society

4 Outline Containment in Europe and the Middle East Revolution in China
Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin crisis NATO Revolution in China Limited war: Korea, MacArthur

5 Key Terms Teheran Conference Yalta Conference Potsdam Conference
Containment Iron Curtain, Eastern Bloc, Warsaw Pact George Kennan Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift West Germany/East Germany National Security Act, 1947 Central Intelligence Agency North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1949 (NATO) Japan-Role in Cold War Chiang Kai-shek (Jiang Jieshi) Mao Tse-tung (Mao Zedong) NSC-68 Dean Acheson








13 Stalin and Roosevelt Roosevelt is often criticized for making bad choices and giving in to Stalin at the Yalta Conference. Why is FDR criticized and is this justified? Explain

14 Origins of the Cold War Cold War- a term that refers to the international rivalry between Communist states and Capitalist states Mainly between United States, Great Britain and Western European countries Verses Soviet Union- Eastern European Satellite states, Later China, Korea, Cuba, Vietnam

15 Over View of Cold War After WWII the US will confront Communist expansion all over the world. Conflict will last 50 years and ends peacefully with Reagan and Bush (41) in 1991, when the Soviet Union disintegrated. Each President will deal with Cold War Issues as the focus of Foreign Policy.

16 Presidents and the Cold War
Truman-( ) Containment Policy Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan Berlin Airlift NATO Korean War Firing of MacArthur H-Bomb Eisenhower- ( ) Korean War peace Guatemala Cuban Revolution Vietnam support Arms Race/Space Race Kennedy ( ) Vietnam escalation (Military advisors and equipment sent) Cuban Missile Crisis (the closest the US will come to Nuclear War) Johnson ( ) Escalates Vietnam involvement (500K troops 1968) Nixon ( ) Massive Bombing of North Vietnam and Cambodia Negotiated Settlement of Vietnam Visits China and begins Détente with Mao Tse Tong Ford ( ) Carter ( ) Russians invade Afghanistan Aides Mujhadeen fighting Russians Communists take over in Nicaragua Reagan ( ) Focuses American in building “Star Wars” anti-missile program and defense spending to counter Soviets Causes Soviet economy to suffer- Gorbachev begins Perestroika- opens frustrations created by Communist economy and peaceful revolution is begun Bush (41) ( ) 1991 the Soviet Union is ended and chain reaction reverberates across Europe (Essentially communism and extreme socialism as an economic system is proven ineffective) Nationalism takes over in formerly communist controlled regions of Europe

17 Trends in American Cold War Foreign Policy
American government will confront communism were ever it attempts to spread using: Covert Action: CIA- influence elections Money: Marshall Plan, later loans and economic aid Military: Equipment, supplies, training, and direct military involvement Greece, Turkey, Guatemala, South Korea, American government will support countries, governments, dictators, and even drug dealers, in an effort to stop the spread of communism.

18 Post WWII Area of Conflict: Eastern Europe, Germany, China, Korea, later Vietnam, Cuba

19 Roosevelt’s Post War World
Wanted Russian help with fighting the Japanese Japan had 1 million soldiers in China Was sympathetic to Russian suffering in two wars with Germany Understood that Russians had a millions of soldiers in Eastern Europe Wanted to create a post war world of order and stability Wanted to prevent War Expand Self determination Wanted to support economic development-

20 Churchill Wanted Maintain the British Empire
Limit Soviet power in Europe

21 Stalin Wanted Protect the Soviet Union from Attack
Establish a buffer zone and Satellite states friendly to Soviet interests Weaken Germany to prevent any further wars

22 Tehran Conference Big Three discuss what to do with Germany
Stalin wanted to eliminate Germany as a threat To partition Germany- Churchill wanted to use Germany to counter the Russians- Roosevelt was more lenient to the needs of Stalin Stalin promised to help fight Japan- after Germany surrendered

23 Teheran Economic Development Plans
International Monetary Fund Fund used to stabilize currency International Bank for Reconstruction- later known as the World Bank Plan to lend money to countries Help revive trade

24 Yalta Conference Feb 1945 Roosevelt is about to die
Soviets were marching into Germany Red Army was occupying most of Eastern Europe Further planned for Post War Europe Russians establish communist governments wherever they had control Poland example- Lublin Government- basically ignored the Polish Government in exile in London Churchill and Roosevelt wanted free elections

25 Stalin Agreed at Yalta To Declare war on Japan after Germany surrendered within 2-3 months Partition of Germany into 4 Zones- Russian, US, British, and French In Exchange for Influence in Manchuria Return of land lost in Russo-Japanese War (1904)

26 Why does Roosevelt give in to Stalin’s Post War plans?
Germany had invaded Russia twice, killed millions of Russians- Roosevelt was sympathetic to Stalin’s idea of Sphere of Influence/Buffer States Roosevelt wanted help from Russians with the Fight against Japan (Russia didn’t declare war on Japan until 2 days before war was over) Buffer Zone will later turn into the Communist Block or Warsaw Pact- The instillation of communist controlled governments along the Western border of Russia: East Germany, Poland, Baltic States, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria… Later known as the Iron Curtain phrase was coined by Churchill at Stalin broke promises “We can’t do business with Stalin. He has broken everyone of the promises he made at Yalta.” FDR


28 Potsdam Conference July 1945
Big 3 at Potsdam Truman, Churchill, Stalin met in a suburb of Berlin for the Potsdam Conference July 17-Aug. 2 Settled the German reparation question- Soviets would get assets in the East Nazi leaders to be tried as war criminals at Nuremberg Korea to be divided Truman found out “Trinity” test of A-Bomb worked, causes a tougher line with the Russians

29 Iron Curtain Speech March 5th, 1946
The Iron Curtain speech, perhaps more commonly known as the Sinews of Peace address, was delivered by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on at Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri. In this speech, Churchill talked about how wrong it was that the Russians were occupying European countries. He spoke of all the terrible things that were going on within these countries, and of the threats and dangers of Communism. Churchill also described an "Iron Curtain" which prevented all communication and connection between the Soviets and Europe and which hung around many European countries. “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent."

30 How does the use of the atomic bomb on Japan fit into the Cold War?
The use of the Bomb makes Stalin want speed up research and espionage on a Russian Bomb. Some believe that the decision to drop the bomb was in part a message to Stalin that the US was capable and prepared to use it against Russia if war broke out again.

31 Containment in Europe and the Middle East
George F. Kennan- American diplomat in Moscow, expert on Russian history 8000 word telegram- advice on how US should deal with Soviet Union and Communism spread Stated the Soviet Union was paranoid of Western attack Suggested Containment strategy- prevent the spread of communism Communism in Europe would eventually die out! Truman and subsequent presidents adopt this view.

32 Truman Doctrine 1947 Secretary of State- Dean Acheson (Strong Anti-Communist) suggests to Truman, if Greece falls to communism- Turkey and other countries will fall… Truman articulates American Policy in speech to joint session of Congress Prompted by Communist actions in Greece (Civil War) and Turkey US policy will aid all countries in the world that are suffering from communist subversion Primarily economic aid (Marshall Plan) but will also include military equipment and training Congress will appropriate $400 million Policy will be replicated by subsequent presidents

33 “Truman Doctrine” “I believe that it must be the Policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure.”

34 Marshall Plan 1947 George Marshall, Secretary of State for Truman
Former Chief of Staff for the Army- coordinated the American strategy WWII Feared further communist popularity in post-war Europe (Socialist movements were gaining power France, Italy, due to- severe destruction, economic declines brought by the war- In bad economic circumstances Communism sounds like a good idea) Proposes a plan to offer Massive Economic Aid to European countries to help rebuild economies and prevent attractiveness of communism ($11 Billion in 3yrs) Complemented Truman Doctrine

35 Berlin Crisis 1948-49 Part of the settlement at Potsdam
Germany was to be partitioned 4 administrative areas Berlin also When the US, France, and Britain prepared unite the Western portion of Germany and the Western portion of Berlin- Russians try to force Western powers out of Berlin preventing access to the Western portion of the city (Blockade) Truman responds with Berlin Airlift supplying Berlin by air, 13,000 tons of supplies per day, airlift lasts 300 days

36 West Germany- Federal Republic of Germany (pro USA)
East Germany- German Democratic Republic (GDR)

37 NATO 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization
Cold War defensive alliance between countries in Europe-and the United States Europeans invited the United States to take an active role in European defense “An armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America… an attack against all” In Asia- SEATO- South East Asia Treaty Organization

38 NATO April 4, 1949 as an international organization for the political and military defense of the US and Canada and the European states of Belgium, Denmark, France (which ceased to be a member of the military structure of the organization in 1966), Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal. An important goal of NATO for more than forty years has been defense against the expansionist ambitions of Communism, and particularly defense against the USSR and the Warsaw Pact — until their dissolution in 1991. Countries entering later are Greece and Turkey (1952), the Federal Republic of Germany (1955), Spain (1982), Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia (1999).

39 Soviet Block Soviets create an alliance- Communist Block or Warsaw Pact countries- defensive alliance dominated by Soviets- 1955 by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union. The organization was the Soviet bloc's equivalent of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

40 American Cold War Bureaucracy
Under Truman the apparatus for national security expands National Security Act- 1947: Established Air Force as separate military body Strategic Air Command-the round-the-clock surveillance and bombing preparation Department of Defense National Security Council- to coordinate between State and Defense departments Established the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)- will engage in intelligence gathering, then covert operations to subvert pro-communist governments- used $, murder, propaganda to influence domestic politics in foreign countries (Italy, Greece, Albania, Guatemala,

41 Truman and Israel 1948- Truman officially recognizes the existence and legitimacy of Israel Part of Cold War- US wanted influence in Middle East

42 NSC- 68 Report Truman orders a study of National Security after Russians detonate A-Bomb Results of the study lead to increased military preparedness and fear of the International Communism Study Recommendations Intensify intelligence Operations US should encourage unrest in Soviet Satellite countries Increase research and development of military capabilities Increase military preparedness Create a standing army- increase military levels Increase military budget


44 Revolution in China Communists Mao Tse Tung Supported by Soviet Union
Nationalist-Capitalist Chiang Kai Shek Supported by Truman Corrupt-limited support from Chinese people Lose to communists-even with US help Evacuate to Formosa or modern Taiwan and set up the Republic of China Taiwan will remain US ally and US will protect its independence through today Significance: Early victory for communists will foster a hard-line reaction from American Administration Asia will become a battleground for the Cold War Communists Mao Tse Tung Supported by Soviet Union Opposition group to Chiang Fights for dominance in China Very popular with Chinese Defeats Chiang’s forces Will become a strong advocate for the expansion of communism in Asia Will later support the North Koreans, North Vietnamese Mao leads the communists till he dies in the 1970’s

45 Truman and China Truman was criticized for not meeting the communist challenge in China However, the US would have had to send troops and massive aid to Chiang in order to delay the inevitable. Chiang had no chance of winning the Civil War- Mao was too popular. Truman and Eisenhower vow to protect Republic of China on the island of Tawain (Formosa)

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