2 Essay Question“Harry S. Truman was a realistic, pragmatic president who skillfully led the American people against the menace posed by the Soviet Union.”Assess the validity of this generalization for President Truman's foreign policy from 1945 to 1953.
3 AP Outline The United States and the Early Cold War Origins of the Cold WarTruman and containmentThe Cold War in Asia: China, Korea, Vietnam, JapanDiplomatic strategies and policies of the Eisenhower and Kennedy administrationsThe Red Scare and McCarthyismImpact of the Cold War on American society
4 Outline Containment in Europe and the Middle East Revolution in China Truman DoctrineMarshall PlanBerlin crisisNATORevolution in ChinaLimited war: Korea, MacArthur
13 Stalin and RooseveltRoosevelt is often criticized for making bad choices and giving in to Stalin at the Yalta Conference.Why is FDR criticized and is this justified? Explain
14 Origins of the Cold WarCold War- a term that refers to the international rivalry between Communist states and Capitalist statesMainly between United States, Great Britain and Western European countriesVersesSoviet Union- Eastern European Satellite states, Later China, Korea, Cuba, Vietnam
15 Over View of Cold WarAfter WWII the US will confront Communist expansion all over the world.Conflict will last 50 years and ends peacefully with Reagan and Bush (41) in 1991, when the Soviet Union disintegrated.Each President will deal with Cold War Issues as the focus of Foreign Policy.
16 Presidents and the Cold War Truman-( )Containment PolicyTruman DoctrineMarshall PlanBerlin AirliftNATOKorean WarFiring of MacArthurH-BombEisenhower- ( )Korean War peaceGuatemalaCuban RevolutionVietnam supportArms Race/Space RaceKennedy ( )Vietnam escalation (Military advisors and equipment sent)Cuban Missile Crisis (the closest the US will come to Nuclear War)Johnson ( )Escalates Vietnam involvement (500K troops 1968)Nixon ( )Massive Bombing of North Vietnam and CambodiaNegotiated Settlement of VietnamVisits China and begins Détente with Mao Tse TongFord ( )Carter ( )Russians invade AfghanistanAides Mujhadeen fighting RussiansCommunists take over in NicaraguaReagan ( )Focuses American in building “Star Wars” anti-missile program and defense spending to counter SovietsCauses Soviet economy to suffer-Gorbachev begins Perestroika- opens frustrations created by Communist economy and peaceful revolution is begunBush (41) ( )1991 the Soviet Union is ended and chain reaction reverberates across Europe (Essentially communism and extreme socialism as an economic system is proven ineffective)Nationalism takes over in formerly communist controlled regions of Europe
17 Trends in American Cold War Foreign Policy American government will confront communism were ever it attempts to spread using:Covert Action: CIA- influence electionsMoney: Marshall Plan, later loans and economic aidMilitary: Equipment, supplies, training, and direct military involvementGreece, Turkey, Guatemala, South Korea,American government will support countries, governments, dictators, and even drug dealers, in an effort to stop the spread of communism.
18 Post WWIIArea of Conflict: Eastern Europe, Germany, China, Korea, later Vietnam, Cuba
19 Roosevelt’s Post War World Wanted Russian help with fighting the JapaneseJapan had 1 million soldiers in ChinaWas sympathetic to Russian suffering in two wars with GermanyUnderstood that Russians had a millions of soldiers in Eastern EuropeWanted to create a post war world of order and stabilityWanted to prevent WarExpand Self determinationWanted to support economic development-
20 Churchill Wanted Maintain the British Empire Limit Soviet power in Europe
21 Stalin Wanted Protect the Soviet Union from Attack Establish a buffer zone and Satellite states friendly to Soviet interestsWeaken Germany to prevent any further wars
22 Tehran Conference Big Three discuss what to do with Germany Stalin wanted to eliminate Germany as a threatTo partition Germany-Churchill wanted to use Germany to counter the Russians-Roosevelt was more lenient to the needs of StalinStalin promised to help fight Japan- after Germany surrendered
23 Teheran Economic Development Plans International Monetary FundFund used to stabilize currencyInternational Bank for Reconstruction- later known as the World BankPlan to lend money to countriesHelp revive trade
24 Yalta Conference Feb 1945 Roosevelt is about to die Soviets were marching into GermanyRed Army was occupying most of Eastern EuropeFurther planned for Post War EuropeRussians establish communist governments wherever they had controlPoland example- Lublin Government- basically ignored the Polish Government in exile in LondonChurchill and Roosevelt wanted free elections
25 Stalin Agreed at YaltaTo Declare war on Japan after Germany surrendered within 2-3 monthsPartition of Germany into 4 Zones- Russian, US, British, and FrenchIn Exchange forInfluence in ManchuriaReturn of land lost in Russo-Japanese War (1904)
26 Why does Roosevelt give in to Stalin’s Post War plans? Germany had invaded Russia twice, killed millions of Russians- Roosevelt was sympathetic to Stalin’s idea of Sphere of Influence/Buffer StatesRoosevelt wanted help from Russians with the Fight against Japan (Russia didn’t declare war on Japan until 2 days before war was over)Buffer Zone will later turn into the Communist Block or Warsaw Pact- The instillation of communist controlled governments along the Western border of Russia:East Germany, Poland, Baltic States, Yugoslavia, Romania, Bulgaria…Later known as the Iron Curtain phrase was coined by Churchill atStalin broke promises“We can’t do business with Stalin. He has broken everyone of the promises he made at Yalta.” FDR
28 Potsdam Conference July 1945 Big 3 at Potsdam Truman, Churchill, Stalin met in a suburb of Berlin for the Potsdam Conference July 17-Aug. 2Settled the German reparation question- Soviets would get assets in the EastNazi leaders to be tried as war criminals at NurembergKorea to be dividedTruman found out “Trinity” test of A-Bomb worked, causes a tougher line with the Russians
29 Iron Curtain Speech March 5th, 1946 The Iron Curtain speech, perhaps more commonly known as the Sinews of Peace address, was delivered by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill on at Westminster College, Fulton, Missouri.In this speech, Churchill talked about how wrong it was that the Russians were occupying European countries.He spoke of all the terrible things that were going on within these countries, and of the threats and dangers of Communism.Churchill also described an "Iron Curtain" which prevented all communication and connection between the Soviets and Europe and which hung around many European countries.“From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the Continent."
30 How does the use of the atomic bomb on Japan fit into the Cold War? The use of the Bomb makes Stalin want speed up research and espionage on a Russian Bomb.Some believe that the decision to drop the bomb was in part a message to Stalin that the US was capable and prepared to use it against Russia if war broke out again.
31 Containment in Europe and the Middle East George F. Kennan- American diplomat in Moscow, expert on Russian history8000 word telegram- advice on how US should deal with Soviet Union and Communism spreadStated the Soviet Union was paranoid of Western attackSuggested Containment strategy- prevent the spread of communismCommunism in Europe would eventually die out!Truman and subsequent presidents adopt this view.
32 Truman Doctrine 1947Secretary of State- Dean Acheson (Strong Anti-Communist) suggests to Truman, if Greece falls to communism- Turkey and other countries will fall…Truman articulates American Policy in speech to joint session of CongressPrompted by Communist actions in Greece (Civil War) and TurkeyUS policy will aid all countries in the world that are suffering from communist subversionPrimarily economic aid (Marshall Plan) but will also include military equipment and trainingCongress will appropriate $400 millionPolicy will be replicated by subsequent presidents
33 “Truman Doctrine”“I believe that it must be the Policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure.”
34 Marshall Plan 1947 George Marshall, Secretary of State for Truman Former Chief of Staff for the Army- coordinated the American strategy WWIIFeared further communist popularity in post-war Europe (Socialist movements were gaining power France, Italy, due to- severe destruction, economic declines brought by the war- In bad economic circumstances Communism sounds like a good idea)Proposes a plan to offer Massive Economic Aid to European countries to help rebuild economies and prevent attractiveness of communism ($11 Billion in 3yrs)Complemented Truman Doctrine
35 Berlin Crisis 1948-49 Part of the settlement at Potsdam Germany was to be partitioned 4 administrative areasBerlin alsoWhen the US, France, and Britain prepared unite the Western portion of Germany and the Western portion of Berlin-Russians try to force Western powers out of Berlin preventing access to the Western portion of the city (Blockade)Truman responds with Berlin Airlift supplying Berlin by air, 13,000 tons of supplies per day, airlift lasts 300 days
36 West Germany- Federal Republic of Germany (pro USA) East Germany- German Democratic Republic (GDR)
37 NATO 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization Cold War defensive alliance between countries in Europe-and the United StatesEuropeans invited the United States to take an active role in European defense“An armed attack against one or more of them in Europe or North America… an attack against all”In Asia- SEATO- South East Asia Treaty Organization
38 NATOApril 4, 1949 as an international organization for the political and military defense of the US and Canada and the European states of Belgium, Denmark, France (which ceased to be a member of the military structure of the organization in 1966), Great Britain, Iceland, Italy, Luxemburg, the Netherlands, Norway, and Portugal.An important goal of NATO for more than forty years has been defense against the expansionist ambitions of Communism, and particularly defense against the USSR and the Warsaw Pact — until their dissolution in 1991.Countries entering later are Greece and Turkey (1952), the Federal Republic of Germany (1955), Spain (1982), Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia (1999).
39 Soviet BlockSoviets create an alliance- Communist Block or Warsaw Pact countries- defensive alliance dominated by Soviets-1955 by Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union.The organization was the Soviet bloc's equivalent of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
40 American Cold War Bureaucracy Under Truman the apparatus for national security expandsNational Security Act- 1947:Established Air Force as separate military bodyStrategic Air Command-the round-the-clock surveillance and bombing preparationDepartment of DefenseNational Security Council- to coordinate between State and Defense departmentsEstablished the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)- will engage in intelligence gathering, then covert operations to subvert pro-communist governments- used $, murder, propaganda to influence domestic politics in foreign countries (Italy, Greece, Albania, Guatemala,
41 Truman and Israel1948- Truman officially recognizes the existence and legitimacy of IsraelPart of Cold War- US wanted influence in Middle East
42 NSC- 68 ReportTruman orders a study of National Security after Russians detonate A-BombResults of the study lead to increased military preparedness and fear of the International CommunismStudy RecommendationsIntensify intelligence OperationsUS should encourage unrest in Soviet Satellite countriesIncrease research and development of military capabilitiesIncrease military preparednessCreate a standing army- increase military levelsIncrease military budget
44 Revolution in China Communists Mao Tse Tung Supported by Soviet Union Nationalist-CapitalistChiang Kai ShekSupported by TrumanCorrupt-limited support from Chinese peopleLose to communists-even with US helpEvacuate to Formosa or modern Taiwan and set up the Republic of ChinaTaiwan will remain US ally and US will protect its independence through todaySignificance: Early victory for communists will foster a hard-line reaction from American AdministrationAsia will become a battleground for the Cold WarCommunistsMao Tse TungSupported by Soviet UnionOpposition group to ChiangFights for dominance in ChinaVery popular with ChineseDefeats Chiang’s forcesWill become a strong advocate for the expansion of communism in AsiaWill later support the North Koreans, North VietnameseMao leads the communists till he dies in the 1970’s
45 Truman and ChinaTruman was criticized for not meeting the communist challenge in ChinaHowever, the US would have had to send troops and massive aid to Chiang in order to delay the inevitable. Chiang had no chance of winning the Civil War- Mao was too popular.Truman and Eisenhower vow to protect Republic of China on the island of Tawain (Formosa)