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Giga-tronics Sensor Care Training AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care1Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

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Presentation on theme: "Giga-tronics Sensor Care Training AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care1Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved."— Presentation transcript:

1 Giga-tronics Sensor Care Training AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care1Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

2 Giga-tronics Sensor Care Training Product Overview Making Accurate Measurements Sensor Failures at Northrop-Grumman Physical Care and Handling Questions and Answers AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 2Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

3 Product Overview What are Power Sensors? –Devices rectify RF energy to a DC voltage. –Diode and Thermal Sensors Giga-tronics uses Diode Sensors All Giga-tronics Sensors are DC Coupled Vdc 0 AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 3Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

4 Diode Sensor Advantage –Thermal sensors respond slowly –Fast - capable of tracking rapid power changes –Measure peak modulated power when designed with proper video bandwidth Vdc 0 AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 4Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Product Overview

5 Square Law region from -70 to -20 dBm Non-linear characteristics from -30 to +20 dBm identified during calibration and corrected during measurement Power in Square Law Region Non-Linear Region Characterization during calibration -70dBm-20dBm+20dBm V out AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 5Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Product Overview

6 Giga-tronics Sensor Calibration Techniques Thermistor used in a patented swept power bridge circuit provides NIST-traceable 90 dB dynamic range AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 6Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Product Overview

7 Connector Types –18 GHz Type N Type K, True RMS and 1 Watt Models only APC 7 –26 and 40 GHz Type K AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 7Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Product Overview

8 Sensor Specifications 10 MHz to 40 GHz (Sensor Dependent) –100 kHz Frequency Range w/ Option 10 Maximum Power to 50 Watts (47 dBm) Continuous Amplitude Signals Only Connector Types –Type N to 18 GHz –Type K to 40 GHz 80300A CW Sensor Series AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 8 Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

9 Sensor Specifications 45 MHz to 40 GHz (Sensor Dependent) CW and Pulsed RF Applications Rise Time –100 nsec., 75 nsec. typical –50 nsec., 40 nsec. typical with Configuration 418 Settling Time nsec. (50% to 3%) Sample Delay nsec. to 104 msec A Peak Sensor Series AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 9Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

10 Sensor Specifications 10 MHz to 18 GHz Video Bandwidths –40 kHz 80400A series –1.5 MHz 80600A series –10 MHz 80700A series Connector Types –Type N to 18 GHz Modulation Sensor Series AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 10Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

11 Power Measurement Accuracy AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 11Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

12 8 Factors considered when calculating measurement uncertainty: –Instrumentation linearity –Sensor power linearity –Calibrator uncertainty –Calibrator/sensor mismatch –Calibration factor uncertainty –Zero Error –Noise –Mismatch sensor/source AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 12Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Power Measurement Accuracy

13 Making Accurate Measurements Sources of Measurement Errors Not Zeroing the meter for low power measurements VSWR Changes in temperature Exceeding Sensor Video Bandwidth AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 13Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

14 Power Measurement Accuracy Low Power Measurements Start from low power setting “Zero” meter to the source Lowest 15 dB dynamic range AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 14Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

15 Power Measurement Accuracy Measurement Uncertainty: Noise Zero Error Meter noise floor Significant in the last 15 dB of dynamic range –e.g. Noise specification= +/- 50 pW (-73 dBm), Signal measured = -63 dBm (0.5 nW) Noise Error = 50pW / 0.5 nW = 10% (0.4 dB) AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 15Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

16 Measurement Uncertainty: Sensor / Source Mismatch AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 16Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

17 Making Accurate Measurements Exceeding Sensor Video Bandwidth AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 17Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

18 DC Levels in the RF Path All Giga-tronics Sensors are DC coupled RF source must not have DC present on output AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 18Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Making Accurate Measurements

19 Maximum Power Ratings All Diode Sensors have a maximum rating of +23 dBm (200 mW) Rating applies for CW and Peak Levels High Power Sensors use Attenuators to reduce the power to the diode element AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 19Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Making Accurate Measurements

20 Sensor Failure Types: Miscellaneous Operational/Test Physical Damage AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 20Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

21 Sensor Failures at Northrop- Grumman Operational Failures –All Diode Sensors have a maximum rating of +23 dBm (200 mW) Electrical Damage to Diode Elements –Exceeding +23 dBm at diode element –ESD –DC level on RF output AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 21Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

22 Physical Failures –Excessive shear force –Worn Connectors Instrument Grade vs. Product Grade –Stress to Center Pin –Dropped sensor –Dirty Connectors –Improper connection and disconnections –Exceeding the recommended torque AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 22Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Sensor Failures at Northrop- Grumman

23 Other Failures –Failed EEPROM +5 Volt Supply Failure –Using Agilent/HP Sensor Cables Accidental Erasure of Sensor Data –Internal Damage Production Assembly AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 23Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Sensor Failures at Northrop- Grumman

24 Breakdown of Failures AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 24Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

25 Center Pin Failure is the most common failure AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 25Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Sensor Failures at Northrop- Grumman

26 Center Pin Failure AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 26Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

27 Making Accurate Measurements ESD Precautions DC Levels in RF Path Maximum Power Ratings AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 27Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

28 ESD Control Observe ESD Precautions Never touch center pin AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 28Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Making Accurate Measurements

29 Physical Care and Handling Handling Giga-tronics Sensors Inspecting and Cleaning Sensor Connectors Making a Proper Connection AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 29Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved.

30 Observe ESD precautions at all times! Know the approximate levels being tested Do not place sensors in locations where they can be easily dropped Never strain sensor body once connected Do not leave long sensor cables on the ground Handling Giga-tronics Sensors AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 30Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

31 Dirty Connectors –Connector Degradation, Measurement Repeatability, Accuracy, Connector Life Inspect connectors –Every 20 connections –Inspect sensor and device connectors for signs of damage and wear –Dirt and Metal Flakes Cleaning Sensor Contacts AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 31Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

32 Cleaning Sensor Contacts Visual Inspection –Damage and dirt can significantly degrade repeatability and accuracy –Gold plated surfaces are especially sensitive to connector damage –Dents, burrs, metal particles, rough spots, and damaged threads –Bent or damaged inner conductor Never use a damaged connector AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 32Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

33 Cleaning Sensor Contacts Visual Inspection If the connector has the following: –Deep scratches –Dents –Particles clinging to mating plane surfaces –Uneven wear Clean connector and re-inspect AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 33Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

34 Cleaning Sensor Contacts First Step Compressed Air –Filtered –Vapor and Oil Free –<60 PSI High velocity air can generate Electrostatic effects on the connectors AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 34Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

35 Cleaning Sensor Contacts Second Step Cotton Swab moistened with Isopropyl Alcohol –Clean outer surfaces only Do not saturate the swab with Isopropyl Alcohol Never make contact with the inner conductor! AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 35Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

36 Cleaning Sensor Contacts Third Step Lint free cloth wrapped around an applicator Moisten only Do not saturate the cloth with Isopropyl Alcohol Never make contact with the center conductor! AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 36Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

37 Cleaning Sensor Contacts Center Conductor Use EXTREME caution Moisten cloth with Isopropyl Alcohol Never apply pressure to inner conductor AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 37Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

38 Cleaning Sensor Contacts Don’ts –Use Acetone, Methanol or CFC’s –Overuse Isopropyl Alcohol –Wet any plastic parts (dielectrics) in connectors –Make contact with the center conductor –Use a swab larger than the gap between the inner and outer conductors –Blow on a connector AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 38Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

39 Align the sensor connector straight in line with mating device connector Turn the Connector Body Only –Never turn the sensor body or source connector –Gold plating wear Hold the sensor stable while connecting and disconnecting the sensor Tightening a Sensor Connector AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 39Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

40 Too much torque will damage a sensor connector Use a Torque Wrench whenever possible Tighten using thumb and forefinger only Recommended Torque –Type N12 – 15 in-lbs. –Type K8 in-lbs. Tightening a Sensor Connector AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 40Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

41 Never use wrenches or pliers to tighten connector Use “Soft Jaw” Pliers and Channel Locks to remove “stuck” connectors only Connector Torque AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 41Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Physical Care and Handling

42 AN-9909 Giga-tronics Sensor Care 42 Copyright © 2009 Giga-tronics Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. | |


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