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CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS 2. Learning Outcomes At the end of this presentation, students would be able to describe the site in terms of: Legal title Local.

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Presentation on theme: "CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS 2. Learning Outcomes At the end of this presentation, students would be able to describe the site in terms of: Legal title Local."— Presentation transcript:

1 CONSTRUCTION SYSTEMS 2

2 Learning Outcomes At the end of this presentation, students would be able to describe the site in terms of: Legal title Local authority requirements Topographical and survey terms Physical features Image: Foundations Where would you choose to put down your foundations? Auckland volcanic map

3 Learning Outcomes At the end of this presentation, students would be able to describe the site in terms of: Legal title Local authority requirements Topographical and survey terms Physical features Foundations Foundations are bearing directly on the soil, thus the system must: Distribute vertical loads so the settling of a building is negligible or uniform under all parts of the building. Lifting Forces: Anchor the building‘s super- structure to prevent uplifting due to wind and earthquake forces. The foundation system for a building is the critical link in the transmission of building loads down to the ground

4 LOADS Building loads (Forces) Gravity LoadsLateral Loads Dead LoadsLive loads Building mass Fixed content Floor Live loads Roof Live loads WindEarthquake Soil & ground water pressure

5 Foundation Settlement Patterns Image:  a building bears down on the supporting soil, some settlement is to be expected.  The cause of settlement is typically due to a reduction in the volume of air voids in the soil.  A properly designed and constructed foundation system should minimize settlement

6 Foundation Settlement Patterns Image:  Uneven or "differential" settlement can cause a building to shift out of plumb causing cracks in the foundation, structure, or finish.  Extreme differential settlement can lead to failure of a building's structural integrity.

7 To get the district plan maps; ISource: Stroud Foster p.35

8 Foundations Types: The Range Foundations ShallowDeep

9 Foundations Types SHALLOW Shallow foundations transfer the load to soil at the base of the substructure Column or wall > 3m DEEP Deep foundations transfer loads far below the substructure These foundations penetrate incompetent soil until a satisfactory bearing stratum is reached.

10 Shallow & deep foundation

11 Foundations Types: The Range Shallow Strip Wide strip Narrow strip Pads Isolated Continuous Cantilever Raft Solid Slab Beam & Slab Cellular

12 Strip Footing

13 Pads, Isolated Pads

14 Rafts

15 Stress Distribution in Soil Strip footings are placed under continuous walls, thus carrying a uniformly distributed load. The required width is related to: - the imposed load and - the bearing capacity of the soil. The strip footing may be stepped on a sloping site to minimise trenches and the amount of walling in the soil

16 Shallow Foundation: Foundation pad size dependent on: -The soil strength or bearing capacity -The pad thickness is dependent on the column loading. -The upper surface can be flat, stepped or sloping. -The major reinforcing is placed at bottom layer, to compensate for the low tensile strength of the concrete

17 To get the district plan maps; Forming a pad footing for isolated column step 1: Pocket excavated to firm bearing, Blinding layer (optional) and DPM placed Step 2: Formwork erected and steel cage dropped in place Note cage in background

18 Portal Frame Pad:

19

20 Rafts Strip FootingDeep Strip Footing

21 Portal frame Footing:

22 Image: Shallow Foundations: Strip Foundations & Pads: Combined Foundations: Spread type foundations and are designed to overcome particular restrictions, thus are less common. For example: may be used to distribute loads between unequally loaded columns using a tapered pad shape

23 Combined Foundations: For improved load distribution: Pad Footings may be combined by linking pads together with ground beams, in order to provide support to slab edges and/or loadbearing walls

24 Image: Shallow Foundations: Strip Foundations & Pads Cantilevered Foundations: When some obstruction at the left column position prevents an adequate foundation being placed directly below the column,

25 Formwork for a pad footing for an isolated column with linking tie beams to adjacent columns Rebar: 4/D500E32 longitudinal

26 Pad footings and ground beams (in foreground) may be combined with reinforced slab on grade. Differential movement checks by Engineer: isolation joints? Dual system: Pads & Slab on grade

27 Precast Wall panel footing:

28 Image: Raft Foundations: Raft Foundations –Solid Slab Raft: solid slab of reinforced concrete load bearing are thickened –Beam & Slab thickness > 300mm Weak soils, beams down –Cellular Raft depth > 900mm a hollow cellular raft.

29 /http://www.firth.co.nz/media/33148/Ribraft%20Technical%20Manual.pdf Cellular Raft Basement walls forms Ribs Twin slabs: below and above

30 Image: Raft Foundations: The raft foundation avoids many of these issues by sitting on top of the ground and having a lattice of steel reinforced concrete ribs and beams to provide support and stiffness. Because they do not require excavation and are specifically designed for each building they can be more robust, quicker to build and often less expensive than traditional foundations.

31 Image: Raft Foundations: The RibRaft flooring system is an innovative method of concrete floor construction that's ideal for masonry construction and light commercial flooring.

32 /http://www.thecubedubai.com/index.php?constructionworksupdate Cellular Raft

33 Image: Raft Foundations: It provides an insulated floor of high strength and durability Offers potential savings in construction time (and cost?)

34 Cellular Raft

35 /http://www.firth.co.nz/media/33148/Ribraft%20Technical%20Manual.pdf Seismic Forces During an Earthquake the ground moves rapidly while buildings try to resist displacement via their inherent inertia Major damage tend to be caused by the horizontal components of these imposed loads

36 /http://www.firth.co.nz/media/33148/Ribraft%20Technical%20Manual.pdf Seismic Forces Primary Factors Affecting Foundation Choice:  Sub-surface soil (Geotechnical Profile)  Ground water table conditions  Building structural requirements Secondary Factors Affecting Foundation Choice: Construction access, methods and site conditions Environmental factors (i.e. seismic zone) Building Codes and Regulations (i.e. setbacks) Impact on surrounding structures (subsidence) Construction schedule (lead times for piles) Construction risks (see piling video clips )


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