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M. Habibur Rahman Pro Vice-Chancellor and Professor of Civil/Environmental Engineering, BUET.

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Presentation on theme: "M. Habibur Rahman Pro Vice-Chancellor and Professor of Civil/Environmental Engineering, BUET."— Presentation transcript:

1 M. Habibur Rahman Pro Vice-Chancellor and Professor of Civil/Environmental Engineering, BUET

2 Bangladesh is exposed to various natural hazards, such as Floods River erosion Cyclones Tornadoes Droughts Cold waves Earthquakes Drainage congestion/ water logging Arsenic contamination Salinity intrusion etc. About 50% of the country is within 6-7 m of MSL About 68% of the country is vulnerable to flood 25 to 30% of the area is inundated during normal flood

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4 GOB & NGO’s together: Short-term relief and rehabilitation project Learning how to help victims during natural calamities Supporting for cyclone and flood victims whenever needed Research also help to direct its activities towards disaster risk management and reduction Coping for better response to future natural disasters Usual responses to disaster management

5 Floods are annual phenomena with the most severe occurring during the months of July and August Regular river floods affect 20% of the country increasing up to 68% in extreme years The floods of 1988, 1998, 2004 and 2007 were particularly catastrophic, resulting in large-scale destruction and loss of lives Approximately 37%, 43%, 52% and 68% of the country is inundated with floods of return periods of 10, 20, 50 and 100 years respectively Four types of flooding occur in Bangladesh Flash floods caused by overflowing of hilly rivers of eastern and northern Bangladesh (in April-May and September-November). Rain floods caused by drainage congestion and heavy rains. Monsoon floods caused by major rivers usually in the monsoon (during June- September) Coastal floods caused by storm surges and tied

6 Year of flooding Flood-affected area (sq. km.) ,780 38,850 52,520 57,270 77,700 1,00,000 41,

7 The 2007 floods came in two waves (first wave commenced around the 24th July 2007 and second wave commenced on the 5th September and continued up until the 15th September 2007) affected a total of 46 districts to varying degrees The flood inundated about Sq Km including the char areas of 6000 sq km Affected almost 16 million people in around 3 million households 85,000 houses were completely damaged, while almost one million suffered partial damages 649 persons were reported to have perished either as a direct impact of the flood or through flood related causes including bridge collapse or boat capsizing Initial flood damage was estimated to be BDT 72, million (USD 1, million)

8 Rivers in Bangladesh are morphologically highly dynamic. Erosion processes are highly unpredictable, and not compensated by accretion. River erosion causes huge loss of property throughout the year Every year about 10,00,000 people are affected by river erosion and 9,000 hectare cultivable lands are banished in river (World Disaster Report 2001) A study concluded in 1991 reported that out of the 462 administrative units in the country, 100 were subject to some form of riverbank erosion, of which 35 were serious, and affected about 1 million people on a yearly basis Around 10,000 hectares land is eroded by river per year in Bangladesh (NWMP, 2001) A recent study of CEGIS (2005) shows that bank erosion along Padma River during 1973 – 2004 was 29,390 hectares and along Jamuna River during 1973 – 2004, it was 87,790 hectares

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10 Tropical cyclones from the Bay of Bengal accompanied by storm surges are one of the major disasters in Bangladesh Of the 508 cyclones that have originated in the Bay of Bengal in the last 100 years, 17% have hit Bangladesh, amounting to a severe cyclone almost once every three years The high number of casualties is due to the fact that cyclones are always associated with storm surges The 1876 cyclone had a surge height of 13.6 m and in 1970 the height was 9.11 m (WARPO, 2005) The 1970 Cyclone was one of the deadliest Cyclone that has hit Bangladesh coastline with a wind speed of about 224 km per hour The 1970 Cyclone was responsible for death of about 470,000 people.

11 On 15 November 2007, Cyclone Sidr struck the south‐west coast of Bangladesh with winds up to 240 kilometers per hour The category 4 storm was accompanied by tidal waves up to five meters high and surges up to 6 meters in some areas The cyclone breached coastal and river embankments, flooded low‐lying areas and caused extensive physical destruction High winds and floods also caused damage to housing, roads, bridges, and other infrastructure Electricity and communication were knocked out, and roads and waterways became impassable Drinking water was contaminated by debris and many sources were inundated with saline water from tidal surges, and sanitation infrastructure was destroyed Destructive Path of Super Cyclone Sidr

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14 Bangladesh faces unpredictable drought hazard in the dry monsoon due to inadequate and uneven rainfall North-western region suffers most from the drought About 17% of the Aman crops, the main paddy crops in the wet season may be lost in a typical year due to drought Drought in Bangladesh is almost regular annual phenomenon and the last severe drought faced by Bangladesh was in 1994 Past droughts have typically affected about 47% area of the country and 53% of the population (WARPO, 2005)

15 In the past, landslide was not considered a major hazard in Bangladesh. However, recently landslide has emerged as a major hazard, particularly after the Chittagong Landslide 2007 Due to heavy rainfall during June 2007, landslide and collapsed walls caused widespread damages in six areas of Chittagong city and in different Upazilas of the district 50 MM rainfall was recorded from 12:00 AM 10 June 2007 to 6:00 AM June , and 315 MM rainfall was recorded from 6:00am to 2:00 PM on 11 June 2007 More than 120 people have been reported dead due to Chittagong Landslide

16 Feedback Loop Emergency Response Risk Reduction Defining and Redefining the Risk Environment Technical and traditional analysis Climate change and climate variability impacts Community risk assessment based on best practice model Documentation of vulnerability and risk factors All hazards; all risks; all sectors focus Defining and Redefining the Risk Environment Technical and traditional analysis Climate change and climate variability impacts Community risk assessment based on best practice model Documentation of vulnerability and risk factors All hazards; all risks; all sectors focus BANGLADESH DISASTER MANAGEMENT MODEL Managing the Risk Environment Achieving a good balance of risk reduction options Moving from generic hazard to risk specific programmes Sustaining service delivery through partnerships Utilizing technical and traditional analysis to strengthen preparedness and emergency response systems including early warning Managing the Risk Environment Achieving a good balance of risk reduction options Moving from generic hazard to risk specific programmes Sustaining service delivery through partnerships Utilizing technical and traditional analysis to strengthen preparedness and emergency response systems including early warning Responding to the Threat Environment Activating systems and mobilizing resources Utilizing vulnerability and risk databases to anticipate potential impact scenarios Maintaining effective communication and reporting Documenting learnings Responding to the Threat Environment Activating systems and mobilizing resources Utilizing vulnerability and risk databases to anticipate potential impact scenarios Maintaining effective communication and reporting Documenting learnings

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18 Massive relief operation for the marooned people in both rural and urban areas As the flood situation deteriorated, GOB & NGO’s immediately initiated a relief programme using its’ own funds Then a larger relief programme with its own contribution and the major donors contribution Strategy for relief program

19 Activities for relief program Emergency Relief Programme Food distribution ORS and medicine Medical assistance Water treatment and maintenance Housing assistance Assistance for IGAs Relief programme for 8 Malaria Endemic Districts

20 Effective disaster risk management is an essential requirement for the future, especially with climate change being a likely exacerbating factor A long‐term strategy and plan that effectively integrates structural and nonstructural, human‐oriented interventions to reduce risk has been broadly outlined in light of lessons learned during work carried out over the last two decades in facing the disasters The long‐term disaster risk reduction framework consists of the following five strategic pillars: Risk identification and assessment; Strengthening and enhancing emergency preparedness; Institutional and community capacity building; Risk mitigation investments; and Introducing catastrophe risk financing in the longer term.

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22 People in rural and urban slums adopted their own ways to survive with their limited recourses and effort They have adopted their own coping strategies during and after flood e.g., change in food habit and timing, eating less, special chula for cooking, raised floor of cowsheds, seedbeds on macha, etc. In some cases people responded with a collective action Learning from Experience:

23 Learning cont… Loss of income and livelihood, especially among the disadvantaged groups, caused immense misery for the affected people But, courageously and boldly, they stood up to meet the challenge and develop innovative coping strategies of their own People found some alternative sources of income to fulfill their daily needs during the flood

24 Comprehensive assessments of risks from natural hazards In all cases of disaster the most effective form of mitigation remains preparedness and where possible, prevention It is needed to help decrease people’s vulnerability and strengthen their capacity to respond to the disaster Recommendations

25 Recommendations cont… The post-flood rehabilitation programme Emergency and appropriate programme to help preventing death from starvation, restore homesteads, rehabilitate agriculture, create employment, prevent epidemics, provide nutritional support to pregnant women and children, and bring back life to normal Active participation of people from all walks of life is necessary to make it a success

26 Recommendations cont… Shelter management: committee formation, specific agencies for relief work Educational institute could be used as shelter during emergency situation A National Disaster Management Alliance. The alliance could also operate a monitoring cell to oversee implementation NGOs and the government could link up to work more effectively together for creating more efficient relief operations

27 Recommendations cont… Quality and quantity of relief materials should be appropriate and adequate Separate toilet and bathing facilities for men and women should be arranged Community members should be aware about the particular issues faced by women and adolescent girls Drinking water supply and latrine facilities should be ensured during flood People should be made aware about the common disasters occurring in the country

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