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29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Food security: meeting the challenges of climate variability and change iCED Workshop on Institutional Framework.

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Presentation on theme: "29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Food security: meeting the challenges of climate variability and change iCED Workshop on Institutional Framework."— Presentation transcript:

1 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Food security: meeting the challenges of climate variability and change iCED Workshop on Institutional Framework for Sustainable Development

2 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Contents -thinking and intervening for food security- Institutions Food and environmental security Institutional frameworks- locating agriculture and food security Agriculture vs or in the environment

3 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Institutions Rules, norms, values, ways of working- Institutions are not organizations Three schools in economics -Institutions exist and matter -Institutions do not matter -Institutions matter and can be measured

4 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Meanings of agriculture Resources Production Employment Food Security Trade Environment Energy Gender Knowledge 17 July 2010Rajeswari S. Raina, NISTADS, New Delhi

5 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Institutions governing agriculture and food Productionism Stewardship Administrative rationality Radical ecology --- etc. Ecological democracy – for sustainable development Scope for evolution of both

6 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR NMSA: Administrative Rationality 3 elements of policy making -Technocracy -Target and control mechanisms -Selective perception Limits - for biological or natural resource based production processes - for all industrial development without contexts, evolution and change 17 July 2010Rajeswari S. Raina, NISTADS, New Delhi

7 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Agriculture and the Development Imperative- Surplus extraction Too many living on a thinning share of the economic pie – 50 % to 14.6 % Un- and under- employment – 64 % Hunger, malnutrition, poverty persist – 48% THE DEVELOPMENT SOLUTION - Move the small peasantry out -86 % - Industrial agriculture -< 40% - Food supply to the displaced, destitute -??? 17 July 2010Rajeswari S. Raina, NISTADS, New Delhi

8 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR1-3 Nov 2010SIID team, India Source: Government of India, 2009; RBI, Figure 1: Irrigation and fertilizer based production

9 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Disjuncture between agriculture and food Green revolution – history – Institutionalization of a paradigm State and science Production for nourishment ?? - malnutrition - soils -water -bio-diversity

10 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Food Security Availability Access Affordability Stability Environmental security?? Food security policy interventions ignore and interfere irrevocably into the close relationships between “many of the constituents of well-being and the provisioning, regulating and enriching components of eco systems” (UNEP, 2004; 2009)

11 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Successful green revolution in South Asia? R. S. Raina, NISTADS (CSIR)

12 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Major challenges Labour – uneven availability/use Less water Less arable land Increasing land policy conflicts Loss of biodiversity: genetic, species and ecosystems Increasing levels of pollution Changing climate + variability So how do we face future challenges? 17 July 2010Rajeswari S. Raina, NISTADS, New Delhi

13 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Projected Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture (from IAASTD, based on IPCC, 2008 ) Sept 2010R. S. Raina, NISTADS

14 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR

15 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR The epoch of fossil fuel based agriculture in human history Finish about 2400 AD Settled agriculture Agricultural revolution About 1750 AD Agricultural expansion & growth 19th – 20th century Likely end of fossil fuel- based agriculture

16 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Production increases come from the rainfed cropping systems R. S. Raina, NISTADS (CSIR)

17 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Are we equipped? NMSA – dryland agriculture, risk management, access to information, use of biotechnology Dryland agriculture – undulating terrains and pre- dominant crops/ crop-livestock systems of rainfed farming, soil fertility + soil moisture management, research – contextual understanding & technology generation, extension – decentralized action research capacities for adaptation and responsiveness, rapid response capacities – human and material resources …?

18 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Rainfed farming – in an alternative institutional framework Agro-ecological systems approach -involves a context specific (spatial and temporal) set of principles -methods to understand and analyse agro-ecosystems -focus is on the dynamism of ecological and social processes -no universal formula or silver bullet for maximizing the productivity -well-being and sustainability of an agro-ecosystem sets the evolving borders/boudaries -principles of agro-ecological knowledge=> offer a framework for analysis and design of technologies and policy interventions.

19 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Alternative Institutional Frameworks- the IAASTD example The IAASTD - a recent debate 17 July 2010Rajeswari S. Raina, NISTADS, New Delhi

20 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Ignored By almost all the sponsors By almost all the governments who approved and accepted By many scientists By major industries By all mainstream economists - Discussed and promoted within environmental movements, CSOs, third world networks, and some international (UN) agencies, … 17 July 2010Rajeswari S. Raina, NISTADS, New Delhi

21 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Why? Institutional alternatives - demand self-reflection - need learning capacities - depend on information flows and exchanges - -- some crucial but missing capacities – Wittgenstein – our faith in economic growth, technological solutions - - will not ‘heal the sickness of our age’.

22 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Agriculture-Environment Food and Environmental security From vs. to in – alternative institutional frameworks

23 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Agriculture in the Environment Current production strategies – food insecurity, social and environmental disruption State enabled degradation – legitimized? Contexts – marginal/small farmers, state and peasantry lock-in, malnutrition, repetitions… Climate change – adaptation strategies that are also mitigation strategies

24 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Debates…policies Tackle each problem – rational production policy Tackle each problem with its environmental consequence/cost – balanced production and environmental policy Understand each issue, causal relationships, intended and un-intended consequences – discursive, iterative policy processes - beyond mere environmental accounting - 17 July 2010Rajeswari S. Raina, NISTADS, New Delhi

25 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Institutional reform? New institutional frameworks? Institutional changes emerge from – (i) need to escape repeated patterns (ii) desire to learn, to experiment – Veblen’s workmanship Dominant institutions – agenda setting norms – translated into development policy Economics legitimizations -2 nd school of institutional economics Institutional reform – needs facilitated capacity development, iterative policy research and learning. 7 March 2011R. S. Raina, NISTADS, New Delhi

26 29 Sept 2011Rajeswari Raina, NISTADS-CSIR Dr Rajeswari S Raina Mobile: Office: March 2011R. S. Raina, NISTADS, New Delhi


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