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Nikos Mattheos Tandvårdshögskolan Malmö PBL for Internet based teaching.

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Presentation on theme: "Nikos Mattheos Tandvårdshögskolan Malmö PBL for Internet based teaching."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nikos Mattheos Tandvårdshögskolan Malmö PBL for Internet based teaching

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3 Develop and evaluate a functional model of PBL for Internet-based teaching. Identify factors of importance when attempting to use PBL in distance education with this media.

4 85 publications (1985 –1999) 30 selected for further classification - year - media employed - target group - type of evaluation - methodology - reported results Analysis of the factors of importance

5 Factors of importance: - accreditation or ”filtering” - personal contact - team work Lack of theoretical framework Lack of original research data (5/85) 3 generations of interaction

6 1 st Generation : 1 st Generation : Correspondence or home study 2 nd Generation: 2 nd Generation: Interactive courses 3 rd Generation. 3 rd Generation. Virtual Classrooms

7 questionnaire Printed materialPrinted material Mail correspondenc correspondence TapesTapes SlidesSlides TV broadcastTV broadcast VHS videosVHS videos CD-ROMCD-ROM World Wide WebWorld Wide Web

8 Audio telephone conference: since 50’s Audiovisual teleconference: early 60’s

9 Interaction in a typical teleconference session:

10 The network environment that can facilitate similar kinds of interaction as in a physical classroom.

11 Student – tutor Student – student Student – learning resources tutor students Learning resources Interaction

12 A Virtual Classroom allows the individual student or professional to access the whole learning process from the comfort of his/her home, with only a standard PC and a reasonably fast Internet connection.

13 Chat Audioconference On-line library Web boards Search engines Multimedia THE SOUP MODEL !

14 28 Undergraduate students - 12 different countries 4 PBL groups – 4 tutors No specific level of competence with computers No specific experience with PBL High quality multimedia material Simple and affordable technology 1 st Pilot study:

15 1. Define the problem 2. Generate hypothesis 3. Formulate learning goals 4. Collect information outside the group 5. Synthesise newly aquired knowledge 6. Test Hypothesis 1 st meeting 1 week 2nd meeting The Malmö model

16 1. Define the problem 2. Generate hypothesis 3. Formulate learning goals 4. Collect information outside the group 5. Synthesise newly aquired knowledge 6. Test Hypothesis The Network model Internet Synchronous Asynchronous

17 Preparatory Workshop : Barcelona October 1998! Duration : January – May 1999! Description of the course Description of the technology Introduction to PBL Formulation of groups Sangria tasting..!

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19 Case 1 ! Presented on 18th January 1999 Karin Karin is female 23 years old. She complains about bleeding in the area of the upper incisor when she brushes her teeth. Karin

20 From: Gabriela Date: 19 Jan 1999 Time: 16:34:21 “THE PROBLEM HERE IS BLEEDING WHILE BRUSHING. THE MOST IMPORTANT WORD IS OF COURSE, BLEEDING. AS I SEE IT FROM THE VIIDEO, THERE IS NO PERIODONTAL POCKET. THE BLEEDING MUST BE DUE TO INFLAMMATION OF THE GINGIVA. AND THE CAUSE OF INFLAMMATION IS THE PATHOGEN. I look forward for the next step”

21 From: Helena Date: 19 Jan 1999 Time: 20:02:13 gingivitis bacteria plaque or tartarbetter higyene antibiotic treatment antibacterial mouth rinse. litle pumps brush toothpaste ulcerate periodontal disease “[…] It seems she has an early stage of gingivitis. The margins of the gums are inflamated because of the body response to bacteria. The bacteria probably are from the dental plaque or tartar, so a first step would be a better higyene of the mouth. I would recommend a plaque removal by a dental specialist. As it is an early stage, it is reversible. I wouldn’t try an antibiotic treatment cause it will cause mutations to the oral bacteriae. Only if the disease gets to an acute stage one should think of antibiotics. I would also recommend washing regularly with an antibacterial mouth rinse. But as it gets only to the coronar part of the teeth, I think I’ve heard of litle pumps that put the antibacterial rinse into the sulcular space. Of course, she should brush twice a day, and floss from time to time... And about the toothpaste I’d suggest to change the toothpaste everytime the tube goes empty, because there is a small amount of antibiotics in it and bacteriae get resistent. The gingivitis must be treted properly otherwise it gets to ulcerate, or even to periodontal disease. Please comment my reply because i’m very interested in this field... See you! ”…

22 From: Rimada Date: 21 Jan 1999 Time: 10:32:11 Hello people, What are we supposed to do? Has case 1 already ended? Greetings, Rimada

23 You can’t teach them swim to swim, without getting them wet wet..!

24 How good are you with computers? Almost unfamiliar Almost expert 2,78

25 Students tend tooverestimate their competence with computers!

26 Decide when… Decide which media… Group Flexibility:

27 too much flexibility might jeopardisegroupwork on the Net..!

28 What was the most important you learned during the Virtual Classroom?

29 The media mightovershadow the aims..!

30 8 participants (2 groups) Hybrid structure 5 PBL cases Distance from 5 to 600 km Mean age 39 yrs No previous experience with PBL or Distance Learning 2nd Pilot study:

31 1. Define the problem 2. Generate hypothesis 3. Formulate learning goals 4. Collect information outside the group 5. Synthesise newly aquired knowledge 6. Test Hypothesis Internet Asynchronous In Classroom Internet Synchronous The Hybrid model

32 Speed of interaction Tutor involvement Participation of individual student Content related features Student attitudes Overall functionality, effectiveness What did we evaluate?

33 Interaction speed Class Sync Async 2,1 inputs/min 15 inputs/min -

34 Interaction speed Class Sync Async 2,1 inputs/min15 inputs/min - Tutor involvement (max) 9 % 48 % 10 –35 %

35 Interaction speed Class Sync Async 2,1 inputs/min15 inputs/min - Tutor involvement 9 %48 %10 –35 % Uneven distribution +++

36 Student attitude Interaction speed Class Sync Async 2,1 inputs/min15 inputs/min - Tutor involvement 9 %48 %10 –35 % Uneven distribution +++ on-line discussions more ”superficial” and sometimes ”frustrating” on-line discussions more ”superficial” and sometimes ”frustrating” Slightly more positive towards DL after courseSlightly more positive towards DL after course

37 Inputs in the web board (asynchronous)

38 The messaging threshold in computer mediated communication. (Reid 1996) Reid, J. M. F., V. Malinek, J. T. Stott, and J. B. T. Evans Ergonomics 39: 1017–37. ”We only communicate through a medium, when our need to communicate exceeds the ”cost” of using this medium.”

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40 In-classroomInternet text- based

41 Text based interaction through Internet is : ”filtered” ”superficial” ? Less spontaneous More tiring different…different..! threshold

42 possible Virtual PBL possible if properly organised compromise Might constitute a compromise over the in-classroom PBL, with currently available media. Further research is needed to identify factors of importance.

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