Presentation on theme: "Income Distribution, Migration and Economic Resilience John Connell (University of Sydney) Malta, April 2007."— Presentation transcript:
Income Distribution, Migration and Economic Resilience John Connell (University of Sydney) Malta, April 2007
Introduction Islands, Poverty and Smallness LDCs, Failed and Corrupt States Restructuring and remoteness Limited Economic Growth Aid, Remittances … and Tourism Transnational States
Dodgy Data and Distribution Uneven data eg Fiji Poverty or Hardship? Absolute Poverty? Poverty..of Opportunity, Dignity/Esteem Youth bulge, Unemployment, Informal Sector If Fiji …. ?? Urban and Rural Safety Nets?
Demography Urbanisation, Settlements Poverty transfers Anti-Urbanism … no Pro-ruralism Population growth Pressure on resources
Migration Uneven development & expectations Economics, environment, society, politics The emptying periphery Selectivity Remittances
International Migration The 1960s ‘long boom’ Colonial and post-colonial ties Skill selectivity ….. brain drain? Globalisation (eg Fiji nurses) Outward urge
A Culture of Migration The ‘destiny’ of smaller states eg Niue Social and economic safety valve Survival of ‘government islands’
Skilled Migration Inherent selectivity ‘get up and go’ Health workers – global health care chain Footballers Security guards Active recruitment
Skills in Drains? Skill training eg Kiribati, Tuvalu Skill choice and migration (eg health) Skill shortages (eg health, aviation, IT) Unsatisfied needs Brain drain and brain waste Limited return migration
Remittances Family structure: TNC of kin Household economic destinations High % disposable income – MIRAB Increased significance eg Fiji Peripheral survival
Use of Remittances Debt repayment Consumption – food, housing, education Investment transition/opportunities – land, education, business (eg markets taxis..) Community eg church11 Towards inequality?
Remittance Sustainability Remittances sustained over decades Second generations, marrying out.. Continued migration Guestworkers … selectivity ‘broken dreams’
Remittances vs. the Skill Drain What choice?
Globalisation and Island Micro States Trade, poverty and migration Employment transferability eg St.Kitts, Fiji Safety nets and redistribution? Social costs
Migration and Self-Reliance An age of migration The culture of the ‘outward urge’ A diasporic future Cosmopolitan islanders and cyber-Polys Emigration as resilience