2Close texture Too much liquid Insufficient raising agent Treacle or syrupEggs and sugar not beaten enoughToo little creaming of fat and sugarToo heavy handling of dough Fold flour using ametal spoonOver stirring of flour Not enough liquidCurdling of creamed mixture Oven too cool
3Uneven, Dry, Crumbly texture Over-stirring or uneven mixing Insufficient beatingToo much raising agentBaked for too long in too slow ovenInsufficient liquid
4Cracking Too hot an oven Insufficient kneading or badly done Baked in too high a shelf in ovenToo stiff a mixture Badly handled when transferred to baking sheetToo hot an ovenToo small a tinBaked on too high a shelf in oven
5Fruit sinks If washed, fruit must be dried in a low oven spread out on traysSticky glace cherries–wash offsyrup and toss in flourMixture must be quite stiff to hold flourUsing self-raising flour instead of plain flour
6Cake sinks Too soft a mixture Too much raising agent Too much sugar Too cool an oven so centre of cake doesn't riseToo hot an oven when cake is removed before it is cookedToo short a cooking time
7Dry fruit cake, Burnt fruit on outside Too high a temperatureGreaseproof paper should be placed over surface if browning too quicklyBaking at too high a temperature Too much raising agentToo stiff a mixture
8Undercooked on top, burned underneath Baking sheet too large for oven, no circulation of air. Needs to be a gap of5 cm between sides of shelf and baking sheet.
9small volume with bound appearance Insufficient beating of the batter.Insufficient sugar used in the recipe.Insufficient baking powder used in the recipe. Such cakes will have a close crumb structure and be tough to eat