4 SalinitySalinity is the measure of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquidPPT(parts per thousand)Increased through evaporationDecreased through added water
5 Density More salinity= more density Evaporation= more density Added water= less densityDeeper/colder= denser
6 Functions Regulates temperatures at different locations of the earth Absorbs and releases thermal energy more than dry land massesKeeps earth at a temperature suitable for life
7 Amaan, Patrick, Anna, & Emma Chapter 2 ~ Section 2Amaan, Patrick, Anna, & Emma
8 Exploration of the Ocean Floor Sonar: Stands for sound navigation and ranging. Technology is based off the echo- ranging behavior of bats. It used to calculate the depth of the oceanSatellite: Satellites from space send images back to Earth which can then be used for studying the speed and direction of ocean currentsGeoSat: A military satellite used to measure changes on ocean heightPiloted Vessels: (Ex) Alvin and Deep Flight. These vessels allow the ocean floor to be studied with people inside it.Robotic Vessels: (Ex) Jason II and Madea. This vessels allow even more deeper exploration that is controlled robotically, without people.
9 Continental Margin Subdivided into the shelf, slope, and rise Continental ShelfSlopes gently toward the open oceanLocation: between the shoreline and the continental slopeContinental SlopeSteeply inclined sectionLocation: between the continental rise and the continental shelfContinues down to flattest part of the oceanContinental RiseBase of the continental slopeGently slopingLocation: between the continental slope and abyssal plain
10 Deep-Ocean Basin Composed of oceanic crust Abyssal Plain: A broad, flat, almost level area of the deep–ocean basinCovered by mud and remains of small decomposing marine organismsAverage Depth: 4,000 metersOcean Trench: A steep, long depression in the ocean floor that runs parallel to a chain of volcanic islands or a continental marginOccur where one oceanic plate is subducted beneath a continental plate or another oceanic plate at a convergent boundarySeamount: A submerged mountain made up of of volcanic material on the ocean floorAt least 1,000 meters tallForm where magma pushes upwards through or between tectonic platesVolcanic Island: Seamounts that surpass sea level
11 Passive Margins vs. Active Margins Occurs on active plate boundariesEarthquakes occur often hereLots of volcanoesEx. West Coast (California)Occurs where there is no active plate boundariesNo trenches, volcanoes, seamounts and earthquakes are not commonEx. East Coast of the U.S.
12 By Caleigh, Lilly, Gabrielle, and Rachel Chapter 3 Section 1By Caleigh, Lilly, Gabrielle, and Rachel
13 Global winds and wind belt Uneven heating of EarthEquator vs. Polar RegionsHigh-pressure and low-pressure systemsConvection currentsCoriolis Effect = curving of wind direction
14 Wind Flow and Interaction Northern HemisphereClockwiseSouthern HemisphereCounter-ClockwiseFrom high to lowSurface currentsSurface tempsEl NiñoGlobal Wind Flow
15 Coriolis Effect Curving of objects from a straight path Wind and surface currents move in curved pathsCaused by Earth’s rotationNorthern- clockwiseSouthern-counterclockwiseGoes from high to low pressure
16 Deep CurrentsDeep currents- A streamlike movement of ocean water far below the surfaceNot controlled by the windAffected by the oceans temperature and SalinitySalinity is the amount of dissolved solids in a liquidDecreasing temperature and increasing salinity increases waters density
17 How they form Decreasing temperature Cold air cools the water molecules causing them to slow down and move closer togetherCauses volume to decrease and become denserIncreasing Salinity through freezingWhen ice forms on top of the water, the dissolved solids are squeezed outThis increases salinity and increases densityIncreasing Salinity through evaporationWhen water is evaporated it leaves behind dissolved solidsThis makes the water denser
18 How currents workSurface currents carry warm less dense water to the polar regionsWarm water replaces colder dense, water that sinks to the ocean floorDeep currents carry colder water along the ocean floor to polar regionsWater from deep currents rise and replace surface currents
19 Ocean Layers and Currents By Jaycee Blythe and Caroline Whinney
32 Surface Currents/Climate Horizontal, stream-like movement of water that occur near or at the surface of the oceanCaused by global winds, continental deflection, and the Coriolis affectClimateWeather in a area over a long period of time
33 Effects of Surface Currents on Climate The California Current keeps the climate along the West cooler than inland climate year roundTemperatures of surface currents vary based on locationWarm-Water Currents:Warmer climate: increased humidityCold-Water Currents:Colder climate: drier atmosphereThe Gulf Stream current transports warm water from the equatorial region to the British Isles, warming the previously cooler climates of the North Atlantic
34 El NiñoEl Nino: a change in the water temperature in the Pacific Ocean that produces a warm currentCauses of El NinoProduced every 2-12 years due to a reduction in intensity of the Trade WindsLess warm water is transported from the southern Pacific to the western PacificNegative RamificationsThere is no upwelling on the coast of South AmericaThe coast of South America becomes deficient in nutrient-rich materialThe western Pacific undergoes a series of droughts and experiences cold conditionsThe eastern Pacific is subject to heavy precipitationSignificanceScientists can prepare the denizens of coastal regions that irregular weather is to be expected
35 UpwellingUpwelling: a process in which cold, nutrient-rich water from the deep ocean rises to the surface and replaces warm surface waterUpwelling is initiated by global winds blowing warm surface currents out to seaWhen cold water rises to replace the warm water, it brings up nutrient-rich material with it that benefits plankton, and in turn, nekton
36 Chapter 3, Section 3WavesErin McGovern and Olivia Luff
37 Parts of a wave Amplitude- ½ of the wave height Crest- the highest point of a wave.Trough- the lowest point of a wave.Wave height- the vertical distance between the crest and trough of a wave.Wave length- the distance between two adjacent wave crests, or wave troughs.
38 Why do waves change as they approach the shore and how? Deep water waves become shallow water waves when they reach depths of less than ½ their original wavelength.Volume remains the same; consequently, the wave height must increase.
39 What are waves on the surface of the Earth caused by? Surface current- a horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind and that occurs at or near the ocean’s surface.Causes:The Coriolis effect- the Earth’s rotation causes wind and surface currents to move in curved paths rather than in straight lines.Continental deflections- when the surface currents meet continents, the currents deflect, or change direction.Global winds- Different winds cause currents to flow in different directions.
40 TsunamiTsunami- a giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption, submarine earthquake, or land slide.Causes:Volcanic eruptions, submarine earthquakes, and land slides cause the trigger of tsunamis.How are tsunamis different from wind driven waves?Tsunamis are created from seismic activity, while normal surface waves are effected by global winds, the Coriolis effect, and continental deflections.
41 Abbey Iafolla, Julia Gleason, Lauren Achenbach, Emma Osilka TidesAbbey Iafolla, Julia Gleason, Lauren Achenbach, Emma Osilka
42 What are tides? High Tide Daily changes in level of ocean water Regular patternHigh TideWater advances towards shoreLow TideWater recedes from shoreLow Tide
43 How Often do Tides Change? Change four times per dayTwo high tidesTwo low tides
44 What causes tides? Gravitational pull of moon and sun Earth’s rotation Greater influence: MoonCloser to EarthHigh TidesWater faces moonCreates a bulge on both sides due to speed of Earth’s spinningLow TidesWater is drawn away from other areasLess gravitational pullTakes 24 hours, 50 minutes for Earth to face moon again
45 Spring and Neap tides Spring Tides Occur twice a month Full and new moonCauses: highest high tide and lowest low tideSun, moon, and Earth are alignedNeap TidesOccur twice a monthFirst and third quarterCauses: low high tides and high low tideSun, moon, and Earth form right angleSpring or Neap Tide occurs every 7days
46 What Are Tidal Bulges Water is pulled towards Moon Earth’s rotation causes bulgeCauses low tides in between two high tides