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Earth’s Oceans By PJ, Mitchel, Karly, and Sophie.

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Presentation on theme: "Earth’s Oceans By PJ, Mitchel, Karly, and Sophie."— Presentation transcript:

1 Earth’s Oceans By PJ, Mitchel, Karly, and Sophie

2 Compounds in the Ocean  Sodium chloride is the most abundant dissolved solid in the ocean

3 Oceans  71%  Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Southern  71%  Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic, Southern

4 Salinity  Salinity is the measure of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid  PPT(parts per thousand)  Increased through evaporation  Decreased through added water  Salinity is the measure of dissolved salts in a given amount of liquid  PPT(parts per thousand)  Increased through evaporation  Decreased through added water

5 Density  More salinity= more density  Evaporation= more density  Added water= less density  Deeper/colder= denser  More salinity= more density  Evaporation= more density  Added water= less density  Deeper/colder= denser

6 Functions  Regulates temperatures at different locations of the earth  Absorbs and releases thermal energy more than dry land masses  Keeps earth at a temperature suitable for life  Regulates temperatures at different locations of the earth  Absorbs and releases thermal energy more than dry land masses  Keeps earth at a temperature suitable for life

7 Chapter 2 ~ Section 2 Amaan, Patrick, Anna, & Emma

8 Exploration of the Ocean Floor  Sonar: Stands for sound navigation and ranging. Technology is based off the echo- ranging behavior of bats. It used to calculate the depth of the ocean  Satellite: Satellites from space send images back to Earth which can then be used for studying the speed and direction of ocean currents  GeoSat: A military satellite used to measure changes on ocean height  Piloted Vessels: (Ex) Alvin and Deep Flight. These vessels allow the ocean floor to be studied with people inside it.  Robotic Vessels: (Ex) Jason II and Madea. This vessels allow even more deeper exploration that is controlled robotically, without people.  Sonar: Stands for sound navigation and ranging. Technology is based off the echo- ranging behavior of bats. It used to calculate the depth of the ocean  Satellite: Satellites from space send images back to Earth which can then be used for studying the speed and direction of ocean currents  GeoSat: A military satellite used to measure changes on ocean height  Piloted Vessels: (Ex) Alvin and Deep Flight. These vessels allow the ocean floor to be studied with people inside it.  Robotic Vessels: (Ex) Jason II and Madea. This vessels allow even more deeper exploration that is controlled robotically, without people.

9 Continental Margin  Subdivided into the shelf, slope, and rise  Continental Shelf  Slopes gently toward the open ocean  Location: between the shoreline and the continental slope  Continental Slope  Steeply inclined section  Location: between the continental rise and the continental shelf  Continues down to flattest part of the ocean  Continental Rise  Base of the continental slope  Gently sloping  Location: between the continental slope and abyssal plain  Subdivided into the shelf, slope, and rise  Continental Shelf  Slopes gently toward the open ocean  Location: between the shoreline and the continental slope  Continental Slope  Steeply inclined section  Location: between the continental rise and the continental shelf  Continues down to flattest part of the ocean  Continental Rise  Base of the continental slope  Gently sloping  Location: between the continental slope and abyssal plain

10 Deep-Ocean Basin  Composed of oceanic crust  Abyssal Plain: A broad, flat, almost level area of the deep–ocean basin  Covered by mud and remains of small decomposing marine organisms  Average Depth: 4,000 meters  Ocean Trench: A steep, long depression in the ocean floor that runs parallel to a chain of volcanic islands or a continental margin  Occur where one oceanic plate is subducted beneath a continental plate or another oceanic plate at a convergent boundary  Seamount: A submerged mountain made up of of volcanic material on the ocean floor  At least 1,000 meters tall  Form where magma pushes upwards through or between tectonic plates  Volcanic Island: Seamounts that surpass sea level  Composed of oceanic crust  Abyssal Plain: A broad, flat, almost level area of the deep–ocean basin  Covered by mud and remains of small decomposing marine organisms  Average Depth: 4,000 meters  Ocean Trench: A steep, long depression in the ocean floor that runs parallel to a chain of volcanic islands or a continental margin  Occur where one oceanic plate is subducted beneath a continental plate or another oceanic plate at a convergent boundary  Seamount: A submerged mountain made up of of volcanic material on the ocean floor  At least 1,000 meters tall  Form where magma pushes upwards through or between tectonic plates  Volcanic Island: Seamounts that surpass sea level

11 Passive Margins vs. Active Margins Active Margins Passive Margins  Occurs on active plate boundaries  Earthquakes occur often here  Lots of volcanoes  Ex. West Coast (California)  Occurs where there is no active plate boundaries  No trenches, volcanoes, seamounts and earthquakes are not common  Ex. East Coast of the U.S.

12 Chapter 3 Section 1 By Caleigh, Lilly, Gabrielle, and Rachel

13 Global Winds  Uneven heating of Earth  Equator vs. Polar Regions  High-pressure and low-pressure systems  Convection currents  Coriolis Effect = curving of wind direction  Uneven heating of Earth  Equator vs. Polar Regions  High-pressure and low-pressure systems  Convection currents  Coriolis Effect = curving of wind direction Global winds and wind belt

14 Wind Flow and Interaction  Northern Hemisphere  Clockwise  Southern Hemisphere  Counter-Clockwise  From high to low  Surface currents  Surface temps  El Niño  Northern Hemisphere  Clockwise  Southern Hemisphere  Counter-Clockwise  From high to low  Surface currents  Surface temps  El Niño Global Wind Flow

15 Coriolis Effect  Curving of objects from a straight path  Wind and surface currents move in curved paths  Caused by Earth’s rotation  Northern- clockwise  Southern-counterclockwise  Goes from high to low pressure  Curving of objects from a straight path  Wind and surface currents move in curved paths  Caused by Earth’s rotation  Northern- clockwise  Southern-counterclockwise  Goes from high to low pressure

16 Deep Currents Deep currents- A streamlike movement of ocean water far below the surface  Not controlled by the wind  Affected by the oceans temperature and Salinity  Salinity is the amount of dissolved solids in a liquid  Decreasing temperature and increasing salinity increases waters density Deep currents- A streamlike movement of ocean water far below the surface  Not controlled by the wind  Affected by the oceans temperature and Salinity  Salinity is the amount of dissolved solids in a liquid  Decreasing temperature and increasing salinity increases waters density

17 How they form  Decreasing temperature  Cold air cools the water molecules causing them to slow down and move closer together  Causes volume to decrease and become denser  Increasing Salinity through freezing  When ice forms on top of the water, the dissolved solids are squeezed out  This increases salinity and increases density  Increasing Salinity through evaporation  When water is evaporated it leaves behind dissolved solids  This makes the water denser  Decreasing temperature  Cold air cools the water molecules causing them to slow down and move closer together  Causes volume to decrease and become denser  Increasing Salinity through freezing  When ice forms on top of the water, the dissolved solids are squeezed out  This increases salinity and increases density  Increasing Salinity through evaporation  When water is evaporated it leaves behind dissolved solids  This makes the water denser

18 How currents work  Surface currents carry warm less dense water to the polar regions  Warm water replaces colder dense, water that sinks to the ocean floor  Deep currents carry colder water along the ocean floor to polar regions  Water from deep currents rise and replace surface currents  Surface currents carry warm less dense water to the polar regions  Warm water replaces colder dense, water that sinks to the ocean floor  Deep currents carry colder water along the ocean floor to polar regions  Water from deep currents rise and replace surface currents

19 Ocean Layers and Currents By Jaycee Blythe and Caroline Whinney

20 Temperature Zones

21 Surface Zone ThermoclineDeep Zone

22 Surface Zone  Warm, top layer  300 meters below sea level  Sunlight heats top 100 meters  Mixes with cooler water below  Warm, top layer  300 meters below sea level  Sunlight heats top 100 meters  Mixes with cooler water below Surface Zone

23 Thermocline  Second layer  300 meters to 700 meters  Temperature drops faster than other two zones  Second layer  300 meters to 700 meters  Temperature drops faster than other two zones Thermocline

24 Deep Zone  Bottom layer  From 700 meters down  Cold, unchanging temperature  1-3 degrees Celcius  Bottom layer  From 700 meters down  Cold, unchanging temperature  1-3 degrees Celcius Deep Zone

25 Surface Currents

26 What controls their movement? Causes of Surface Currents Global Winds Coriolis Effect Continental Defection

27 Global Winds Caused by uneven heating of the Earth which leads to differences in pressure

28 Coriolis Effect Straight Curved

29 Continental Deflection

30 Movement of Surface Currents in Hemispheres

31 Science Chapter 3.2: Oceanography Surface Currents, Climate, Upwelling, El Nino

32 Surface Currents/Climate  Surface Currents  Horizontal, stream-like movement of water that occur near or at the surface of the ocean  Caused by global winds, continental deflection, and the Coriolis affect  Climate  Weather in a area over a long period of time  Surface Currents  Horizontal, stream-like movement of water that occur near or at the surface of the ocean  Caused by global winds, continental deflection, and the Coriolis affect  Climate  Weather in a area over a long period of time

33 Effects of Surface Currents on Climate  Temperatures of surface currents vary based on location  Warm-Water Currents:  Warmer climate: increased humidity  Cold-Water Currents:  Colder climate: drier atmosphere  Temperatures of surface currents vary based on location  Warm-Water Currents:  Warmer climate: increased humidity  Cold-Water Currents:  Colder climate: drier atmosphere The Gulf Stream current transports warm water from the equatorial region to the British Isles, warming the previously cooler climates of the North Atlantic The California Current keeps the climate along the West cooler than inland climate year round

34 El Niño  El Nino: a change in the water temperature in the Pacific Ocean that produces a warm current  Causes of El Nino  Produced every 2-12 years due to a reduction in intensity of the Trade Winds  Less warm water is transported from the southern Pacific to the western Pacific  Negative Ramifications  There is no upwelling on the coast of South America  The coast of South America becomes deficient in nutrient-rich material  The western Pacific undergoes a series of droughts and experiences cold conditions  The eastern Pacific is subject to heavy precipitation  Significance  Scientists can prepare the denizens of coastal regions that irregular weather is to be expected  El Nino: a change in the water temperature in the Pacific Ocean that produces a warm current  Causes of El Nino  Produced every 2-12 years due to a reduction in intensity of the Trade Winds  Less warm water is transported from the southern Pacific to the western Pacific  Negative Ramifications  There is no upwelling on the coast of South America  The coast of South America becomes deficient in nutrient-rich material  The western Pacific undergoes a series of droughts and experiences cold conditions  The eastern Pacific is subject to heavy precipitation  Significance  Scientists can prepare the denizens of coastal regions that irregular weather is to be expected

35 Upwelling  Upwelling: a process in which cold, nutrient-rich water from the deep ocean rises to the surface and replaces warm surface water  Upwelling is initiated by global winds blowing warm surface currents out to sea  When cold water rises to replace the warm water, it brings up nutrient-rich material with it that benefits plankton, and in turn, nekton  Upwelling: a process in which cold, nutrient-rich water from the deep ocean rises to the surface and replaces warm surface water  Upwelling is initiated by global winds blowing warm surface currents out to sea  When cold water rises to replace the warm water, it brings up nutrient-rich material with it that benefits plankton, and in turn, nekton

36 Chapter 3, Section 3 Waves Erin McGovern and Olivia Luff

37 Parts of a wave Amplitude- ½ of the wave height Crest- the highest point of a wave. Trough- the lowest point of a wave. Wave height- the vertical distance between the crest and trough of a wave. Wave length- the distance between two adjacent wave crests, or wave troughs.

38 Why do waves change as they approach the shore and how? Deep water waves become shallow water waves when they reach depths of less than ½ their original wavelength. Volume remains the same; consequently, the wave height must increase.

39 What are waves on the surface of the Earth caused by?  Surface current- a horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind and that occurs at or near the ocean’s surface. Causes:  The Coriolis effect- the Earth’s rotation causes wind and surface currents to move in curved paths rather than in straight lines.  Continental deflections- when the surface currents meet continents, the currents deflect, or change direction.  Global winds- Different winds cause currents to flow in different directions.  Surface current- a horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by wind and that occurs at or near the ocean’s surface. Causes:  The Coriolis effect- the Earth’s rotation causes wind and surface currents to move in curved paths rather than in straight lines.  Continental deflections- when the surface currents meet continents, the currents deflect, or change direction.  Global winds- Different winds cause currents to flow in different directions.

40 Tsunami  Tsunami- a giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption, submarine earthquake, or land slide. Causes:  Volcanic eruptions, submarine earthquakes, and land slides cause the trigger of tsunamis. How are tsunamis different from wind driven waves?  Tsunamis are created from seismic activity, while normal surface waves are effected by global winds, the Coriolis effect, and continental deflections.  Tsunami- a giant ocean wave that forms after a volcanic eruption, submarine earthquake, or land slide. Causes:  Volcanic eruptions, submarine earthquakes, and land slides cause the trigger of tsunamis. How are tsunamis different from wind driven waves?  Tsunamis are created from seismic activity, while normal surface waves are effected by global winds, the Coriolis effect, and continental deflections.

41 Tides Abbey Iafolla, Julia Gleason, Lauren Achenbach, Emma Osilka

42 What are tides?  Daily changes in level of ocean water  Regular pattern  High Tide  Water advances towards shore  Low Tide  Water recedes from shore  Daily changes in level of ocean water  Regular pattern  High Tide  Water advances towards shore  Low Tide  Water recedes from shore High Tide Low Tide

43 How Often do Tides Change?  Change four times per day  Two high tides  Two low tides  Change four times per day  Two high tides  Two low tides

44 What causes tides?  Gravitational pull of moon and sun  Earth’s rotation  Greater influence: Moon  Closer to Earth  High Tides  Water faces moon  Creates a bulge on both sides due to speed of Earth’s spinning  Low Tides  Water is drawn away from other areas  Less gravitational pull  Takes 24 hours, 50 minutes for Earth to face moon again  Gravitational pull of moon and sun  Earth’s rotation  Greater influence: Moon  Closer to Earth  High Tides  Water faces moon  Creates a bulge on both sides due to speed of Earth’s spinning  Low Tides  Water is drawn away from other areas  Less gravitational pull  Takes 24 hours, 50 minutes for Earth to face moon again

45 Spring and Neap tides  Neap Tides  Occur twice a month  First and third quarter  Causes: low high tides and high low tide  Sun, moon, and Earth form right angle  Spring or Neap Tide occurs every 7 days  Neap Tides  Occur twice a month  First and third quarter  Causes: low high tides and high low tide  Sun, moon, and Earth form right angle  Spring or Neap Tide occurs every 7 days  Spring Tides  Occur twice a month  Full and new moon  Causes: highest high tide and lowest low tide  Sun, moon, and Earth are aligned

46 What Are Tidal Bulges  Water is pulled towards Moon  Earth’s rotation causes bulge  Causes low tides in between two high tides  Water is pulled towards Moon  Earth’s rotation causes bulge  Causes low tides in between two high tides


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