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31  Nitrogen fixation - bacteria fix N 2 with hydrogen to become ammonia  Nitrification - bacteria convert most of the ammonia in soil to nitrite ions (NO 2 - ) and nitrate ions (NO 3 - )  Assimilation - plants absorb ions  Ammonification - decomposers releasing nitrogen in form of ammonium (NH 4 + )  Denitrification - “unfixing” nitrogen back into free nitrogen

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42 30°S Easterlies Westerlies Southeast tradewinds (Doldrums) Northeast tradewinds Westerlies (from the west) Easterlies (from the east) 60°S equator 30°N 60°N

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44 WHAT IS THE EL NINO-SOUTHERN OSCILLATION (ENSO)?

45 Normal Conditions Cold water Warm water Thermocline SOUTH AMERICA Warm waters pushed westward AUSTRALIA EQUATOR Surface winds blow westward

46 El Niño Conditions Cold water Thermocline Warm water Warm water deepens off South America SOUTH AMERICA Warm water flow stopped or reversed AUSTRALIA EQUATOR Drought in Australia and Southeast Asia Winds weaken, causing updrafts and storms

47 the greenhouse effect 1)Water vapor H 2 O 2)Carbon dioxide CO 2 3)Methane CH 4 4)Nitrous oxide N 2 O 5)Chlorofluorocarbons CFCs Major Greenhouse Gases

48 a Winds carry moisture inland from Pacific Ocean b Clouds, rain on windward side of mountain range c Rain shadow on leeward side of mountain range Moist habitats Dry habitats the rain shadow effect

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65 © 2004 Brooks/Cole – Thomson Learning Time (t) Population size (N) K Exponential Growth Logistic Growth Carrying capacity

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69 Ages 0-14 Ages Ages Rapid Growth Guatemala Nigeria Saudi Arabia Rapid Growth Guatemala Nigeria Saudi Arabia Slow Growth United States Australia Canada Slow Growth United States Australia Canada Male Female Zero Growth Spain Austria Greece Zero Growth Spain Austria Greece Negative Growth Germany Bulgaria Sweden Negative Growth Germany Bulgaria Sweden

70 Food webs and energy flow Water regulation Influence local-regional climate Numerous habitats and niches Air purification Carbon sequestration

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72  Even-aged management  Industrial forestry  Even-aged management  Industrial forestry  Uneven-aged management  Improved diversity  Sustainable production  Selective cutting  Multiple-use  Uneven-aged management  Improved diversity  Sustainable production  Selective cutting  Multiple-use

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74  B URN AWAY FLAMMABLE GROUND MATERIAL  R ELEASE MINERAL NUTRIENTS  I NCREASE ACTIVITY OF NITROGEN - FIXING BACTERIA  S TIMULATE GERMINATION OF SOME SEEDS  H ELP CONTROL PATHOGENS AND INSECTS

75  D ESTROYS MOST VEGETATION  K ILLS WILDLIFE  I NCREASES SOIL EROSION


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