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Fate of Cells The developing embryo undergoes morphogenesis in order to create different tissues and organs through cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis.

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Presentation on theme: "Fate of Cells The developing embryo undergoes morphogenesis in order to create different tissues and organs through cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fate of Cells The developing embryo undergoes morphogenesis in order to create different tissues and organs through cleavage, gastrulation, and organogenesis – Morphogenesis… changing of form, shape, or function – Cleavage… pinching off to form 2 structures or a division within a structure – Gastrulation… forming a cavity – Organogenesis… specialization of tissue for a function

2 Cell Differentiation Cells are totipotent in the first 16 cells of the of the blastocyst – Potency is reduced with each cell specialization there after Initial differentiation due largely to uneven distribution of cytoplasmic determinants in the yolk of the egg – Egg is polarized creating heterogeneous cytoplasm – Cleavage creates uneven distribution of mRNA and asymmetrical cell division Process of induction causes the specialization of most cells – Created through contact via diffusible chemical signals

3 Fate Mapping Manipulation of embryonic cells to determine the lineage of cells from the first cleavage event

4 Cellular Asymmetries Axes of body plan – Anterior-posterior, ventral-dorsal, right-left Establishes bilateral symmetry 1 st step in morphogenesis and tissue/organ formation – Bicoid region of flies – Determined by melanin in the yolk during oogenesis – Gravity helps determine anterior/posterior axis in chicks – pH determines ventral/dorsal…marked by the gray crescent in many embryos


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