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Biochemistry Bio I Honors Rupp 1. Water Two hydrogens and one oxygen bonded covalently Electrons are not shared equally— oxygen is very electronegative.

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Presentation on theme: "Biochemistry Bio I Honors Rupp 1. Water Two hydrogens and one oxygen bonded covalently Electrons are not shared equally— oxygen is very electronegative."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biochemistry Bio I Honors Rupp 1

2 Water Two hydrogens and one oxygen bonded covalently Electrons are not shared equally— oxygen is very electronegative The uneven charge is known as polarity ◦ Oxygen is negative ◦ Hydrogens are positive 2

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4 Polarity The uneven charge of water is what makes it good at dissolving other substances ◦ Sugars ◦ Proteins ◦ Ionic compounds 4

5 Water’s Physical Properties High surface tension High specific heat Cohesion ◦ Attractive force between particles that are the same Adhesion ◦ Attractive force between unlike particles Capillarity Universal solvent Neutral pH Hydrogen bonding 5

6 Water’s Physical Properties Surface tensionCohesion 6

7 Water’s Physical Properties AdhesionHydrogen bonds 7

8 Carbon Compounds Carbon has four outer electrons Carbon can form how many bonds? Types of bonds ◦ Single ◦ Double ◦ Triple Structures ◦ Straight chains ◦ Branched ◦ Rings 8

9 Carbon Structure 9

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11 Functional Groups Group NameGroup Structure Alcohol-OH Aldehyde-CHO Ketone-CO Carboxylic acid-COOH Amine-NH2 Phosphate-PO4 Sulfhydryl-SH 11

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13 Polymers Macromolecules or polymers are built from single units called monomers Dehydration synthesis or condensation reaction joins two monomers ◦ Water is lost ◦ Building Hydrolysis reactions break apart polymers into monomers ◦ Water is added ◦ Breaking Energy used for both processes—ATP 13

14 Dehydration Synthesis vs. Hydrolysis 14

15 Carbohydrates Composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen Sugars ◦ Monosaccharides ◦ Disaccharides ◦ Polysaccharides 15

16 Monosaccharides Basic formula is C 6 H 12 O 6 Triose—3 carbons Pentose—5 carbons Hexose—6 carbons 16

17 Disaccharides Basic formula is C 12 H 22 O 11 Two monosaccharides have been linked and a water lost The bond holding the sugars together is a glycosidic bond Isomers—same chemical formula with different structures 17

18 Polysaccharides StorageStructural Starch Simplest starch is amylose, which is found in plants Amylopectin is more complex with more branches Glycogen is a highly branched animal starch Cellulose and chitin Cellulose is the most abundant organic compound on Earth Chitin is found in shells of crustaceans and insects 18

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21 Proteins Made of carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen Monomers are amino acids linked through dehydration synthesis Essential amino acids— need to be consumed because your body cannot make them Lysine and tryptophan are two amino acids Poorly represented in vegetarian diets Lysine is found in chicken, turkey, potatoes, cheese, soy, eggs, milk, fish, and beef Tryptophan is found in almonds, cabbage, kidney beans, lima beans, oats, pistachios, poppy seeds, spinach, and wheat 21

22 Proteins con’t. Peptide bond is the bond between amino acids Many amino acids means many peptide bonds, hence proteins are referred to as polypeptides 22

23 Proteins con’t. What are proteins good for? ◦ Structural support ◦ Storage of food sources ◦ Transport proteins ◦ Hormones ◦ Antibodies ◦ Enzymes 23

24 Proteins con’t. Different protein shapes ◦ Globular ◦ Fibrous ◦ Membranous Enzymes ◦ Special proteins that speed up reactions; biological catalysts 24

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26 Lipids Fatty acid chains— referred to as acids because of the carboxylic acid functional group Two subgroups ◦ Saturated ◦ Unsaturated 26

27 Lipids con’t. SaturatedUnsaturated Solid at room temperature Found mostly in animals No double bonds between carbons Liquid at room temperature Found mostly in plants Double bonds between carbons 27

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29 Lipids con’t. Trans fatty acids— also known as partially hydrogenated fats (check food labels) ◦ Not good for you ◦ Manufactured to have more taste than unsaturated fatty acids 29

30 Omega 3 Fatty Acids—Good Lipids Help in cell membrane formation—keeps them flexible Deficiencies linked to: ◦ Decreased mental ability ◦ Poor vision ◦ Increased blood clots ◦ Diminished immune function ◦ High blood pressure ◦ Learning disorders ◦ Growth retardation Found in: ◦ Walnuts ◦ Pumpkin seeds ◦ Brazil nuts ◦ Avocados ◦ Spinach ◦ Collard greens ◦ Salmon ◦ Mackerel ◦ Albacore tuna 30

31 Omega 6 Fatty Acids—Good Lipids Help improve: ◦ Diabetic neuropathy ◦ Rheumatoid arthritis ◦ PMS ◦ Skin disorders such as psoriasis and eczema Found in: ◦ Grapeseed oil ◦ Pumpkin seeds ◦ Pinenuts ◦ Pistachios ◦ Raw sunflower seeds ◦ Olives ◦ Chicken 31

32 Phospholipids Very similar to fatty acids except there is a phosphate group attached Polar phosphate group and non-polar fatty acids Found in cell membranes 32

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34 Waxes A type of structural lipid Highly waterproof ◦ Found on plant leaves to prevent water loss ◦ Also found on animals as a protective layer against microorganisms, Ex., earwax 34

35 Nucleic Acids DNA—deoxyribonucleic acid ◦ “deoxy” implies a certain sugar type RNA—ribonucleic acid ◦ “ribo” implies a certain sugar type Both are composed of thousands of monomers called nucleotides Three parts to each ◦ Phosphate ◦ Sugar ◦ Nitrogenous base Monomers are connected by phosphodiester bonds 35

36 Nucleic Acids con’t. 36

37 Nucleic Acids con’t. 37

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