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Industrialization: The Process What was industrialization? What was industrialization? How did the work process change? How did the work process change?

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Presentation on theme: "Industrialization: The Process What was industrialization? What was industrialization? How did the work process change? How did the work process change?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Industrialization: The Process What was industrialization? What was industrialization? How did the work process change? How did the work process change? A long, uneven, ongoing process: A long, uneven, ongoing process: 1830s-1850s: “Take Off” 1870s-1890s: Competitive Capitalism 1890s on: Monopoly Capitalism

2 A long, uneven, ongoing process: 1830s-1850s: “Take Off” 1870s-1890s: Competitive Capitalism 1890s on: Monopoly Capitalism

3 Industrialization: Process

4 A Broad Matrix of Changes 1. Demographic change: Higher standard of living  higher life expectancy + immigration  much larger and more diverse population 2. Family life: changes in women’s roles, child labor

5 Population Growth in Industrial Illinois, Chicago: 1840: : 500, : 2.2 million “Downstate”: 1860: 1.6 million/1910: 3.2 million

6 Broad Matrix of Changes (Continued) 3. Law: changes to protect private property and facilitate the accumulation of capital, discipline the labor force. 3. Social Relations: notably, particularly severe class conflict

7 Birmingham, AL, 1850s/1870s

8

9 Industrializing People “Pre-industrial” work habits and culture – artisans, farm girls, and peasants Socializing workers and creating and industrial workforce – measured time, punctuality, an industrial ethic Waves of pre-industrial people over time, 1820s to the Present – migrants and immigrants

10 Industrialization: The Human Dimension at Two Moments s-1840s and s Lowell Mills, 1830 Model T Assembly Line, 1913

11 Industrialization, 1830s-Civil War I. The Material Process: A. Demographic Revolution: (1790: 32 mil) Immigration, : 4.3 mil. (93 % from Europe) B. Transportation Revolution: s-1840s: Canals link local into regional markets – e.g., Erie Canal (1825) I&M (1848) – immigrant labor s-1860s: Railroads link local and regional markets into a national market system, stimulate numerous industries, and provide a model for the modern corporation – immigrant labor. C. Urbanization: : 4-5% / 1870: about 25% -- greatest increase, NE becomes urban and industrial and Midwest “takes off” 3. Residential segregation by class and ethnicity s: Most cities one-third foreign born – Chicago, 48%, NYC – 45%

12 Industrialization before the factory, e.g., Philadelphia, Factories (28%) – textiles, boot and shoe 2. “Manufactories” (37%) – clothing, leather, boot and shoe 3.Sweatshops (23%) – clothing, boot and shoe 4. “Outwork” (?) – weaving, clothing, boot and shoe 5. The (12%) 5. The Artisan Shop (12%)

13 Factory Production: 1. Division of labor and mechanization – “Spinning Jenny.” 2. Separation of production from management and management from ownership. 3. Larger workforces Lowell Mills, 1830

14 The early factory proletariat: Yankee farm women Immigrant labor – the Irish Children

15 Industrial Time and Work Discipline Lowell Offering, 1840

16 A Lowell Factory Girl Speaks “The Factory Bell”

17 “Industrial Morality” “good character” – efficiency, punctuality, temperance, time orientation e.g., Society for the Promotion of Industry, Frugality, and Temperance (Lynn, MA, 1826  ) Enforcing industrial morality: -- Temperance agitation and “Blue Laws” -- Professionalization of the police -- Laws against “objectionable behavior” -- Centralization of education -- From “outdoor” to “indoor” poor relief

18 Mr. Dyott’s Plan (1833)

19 Mass Production and the Recreation of the Labor Force, 1900 – 1920s

20 Mass Production, 1900  1. Extreme Division of Labor – e.g., Meat Packing and Ford’s Model T 2. Standardized parts 3. Constant Flow of Production 4. Control by management 5. Mechanization

21 Industrializing the Workers: Peasants on the Assembly Line The “New Immigrants”, 1890s to 1920s Ford’s Sociology Department

22 Frederick Winslow Taylor ( ) Philips Exeter and Harvard Medical problems  Midvale Steel Bethlehem Steel, 1898  “A Piece Rate System” (1895) Principles of Scientific Management (1911)

23 Schmidt’s Story, Bethlehem Steel, circa 1900

24 Principles of Scientific Management 1. Scientific study of the tasks involved and determination of the “one best way to do the job”. 2. Scientifically select and train the workman to establish a scientific standard. 3. Provide detailed instruction and close supervision of each worker in the performance of the task in order to insure maintenance of the standard. 4. Set the pay scale in relation to the new standard.

25 Bethlehem Steel Strike, 1910


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