What is a bond? 4 Types of bonds Naming type I, II, & III
A bond is an electrostatic force that holds atoms together. Atoms will bond using their electrons.
Ionic bonding ◦ Electrons are transferred from one atom to the other. (give/take) ◦ Happens between metals & nonmetals (cations & anions). ◦ The atom that loses the electron becomes positive (cation) and the atom that gains the electron becomes negative (anion)...ions, get it, ionic bond. ◦ Why does this happen? The electrogegativity difference between the atoms is > 1.7 so one atom is able to rip the electron away. ◦ Form a crystal lattice structure.
Covalent Bonding ◦ Electrons are shared between atoms. ◦ Happens between nonmetals only. ◦ There are 2 types of covalent bonding based on the amount of sharing of electrons. Polar covalent is uneven sharing, thus creating a pole. Bond electronegativity difference <1.7 Structure asymmetrical. Nonpolar covalent is even sharing, thus no pole. Bond electronegativity difference <0.4 Structure symmetrical.
Metallic bonding ◦ Delocalized electrons float around the electron sea. ◦ Happens between metals only. ◦ Characteristics: Malleable Ductile Luster Conductor
A for ionic, B for covalent, and C for metallic ◦ Li 2 S ◦ AuAg ◦ PbNO 3 ◦ NO ◦ C 6 H 12 O 6 ◦ SnN
A for ionic, B for polar covalent, C for nonpolar covalent ◦K2O◦K2O ◦ NS 3 ◦N2◦N2 ◦ AuI ◦ NaF ◦ C 6 H 12
Type I ◦ Use for ionic bonds when the cation has only one charge (groups1A-3A). ◦ The first element keeps its name and the second element changes the end of its name to –ide (unless it already has a fancy name). ◦ Criss-cross charges if uneven. Ex. NaBr is sodium bromide Ex. CaCl 2 is calcium chloride Ex. Be(ClO 3 ) 2 is beryllium chlorate
Type II ◦ Use for ionic bonds when the cation has more than one charge (transition metals). ◦ The first element keeps its name and the second element changes the end of its name to –ide (unless it already has a fancy name). ◦ Use a roman numeral to show the charge of the first ion. ◦ Criss-cross charges if uneven. Ex. AuI is gold (I) iodide Ex. Mn 2 O 3 is manganese (III) oxide Ex. W 3 (PO 4 ) 2 is tungsten (II) phosphate
Type III ◦ Use for covalent bonds. ◦ Use prefixes to denote the number of atoms and change the ending of the second element to -ide. Ex. S 2 O 3 is disulfur trioxide Ex.N 3 P 4 is trinitrogen tetraphosphide Ex. BrH 5 is bromine pentahydride