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Chapter 8 Michael Slemp. Octopus Is cephalopod mollusc Octopuses have two eyes 8 arms with suction cups Hard beak in the mouth Octopuses have no internal.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 Michael Slemp. Octopus Is cephalopod mollusc Octopuses have two eyes 8 arms with suction cups Hard beak in the mouth Octopuses have no internal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 Michael Slemp

2 Octopus Is cephalopod mollusc Octopuses have two eyes 8 arms with suction cups Hard beak in the mouth Octopuses have no internal or external skeleton One of the most intelligent of all invertebrates To defend themselves, they release ink (melanin = same as your hair and eye color), use camouflage and arm autonomy (detaching of arm) All octopuses are venomous Short life expectancy (6months-5 years). Die shortly after reproduction They have 3 hearts ( 2 pumps blood thru gills and 1 thru body) They eat crabs, other molluscs (clams), fish, other cephalopods

3 What is AIR (atmosphere)? Gases Nitrogen 78 % Oxygen 21 % Argon 1% Carbon Dioxide 0.03% All other gasses 0.01% See pie chart in your book page 8-4 Water vapor Aerosol Water vapors are invisible. The reason clouds are white is because the water have condensed Aerosol is liquid and solid particles suspended in air (like dust, pollen, ash) Water vapor and aerosol makes about 4% of air)

4 Atmospheric layers Troposphere: from sea level up to 15,000 meters (49,200 feet) Contains most of the air. Air compresses under its own weight = higher air pressure Stratosphere: up to 50,000 meters (164,000 feet) Has the most ozone! Mesosphere: up to 100,000 meters (360,800 feet) Thermosphere: beyond 110,000 meters (360,800 feet) into space

5 What is ozone? Gas composed of 3 oxygen atoms (O3) Normally oxygen molecule has 2 oxygen atoms (O2) Extra oxygen in ozone causes instability and increased reactivity Ozone is mostly in stratosphere and absorbs the UV light (radiation from sun) Ozone protect us. If there would be no ozone, the UV light would kill the life on our planet In 1974, scientist came out with theory that ozone interacts with CFCs (chemical found in aerosols and air conditions) Reaction of ozone with CFCs can cause ozone hole and effect life on planet Earth! Scientists are monitoring the size of the ozone hole existing over Antarctica

6 How much water vapor is in the air? That depends on temperature, density and pressure As temperature increases, pressure increases and density decreases Adding water vapor decreases air density even more Air is denser than water vapors Warm, moist air is less dense than cold air. Two air masses of the same temperature can have different densities It depends on the amount of water vapor Air with more water vapor is less dense Evaporation Adds water vapors into the air Condensation Removes water vapors from the air

7 Saturated air Air in which the rate of evaporation and the rate of condensation are the same. The amount of water vapors is unchanged. What happens when saturated air warms up? It becomes undersaturated. Evaporation adds more water vapors into undersaturated air. What happens when saturated air cools down? There is increased condensation Water vapors are removed from air in form of rain or snow (if temperature is low enough) Initially water droplets or ice crystals are very small and remain suspended in air As they collide, they form bigger drops or clusters or ice crystals. This lead to rain or snow Rain and snow happens when warm moist air mass collide with cooler air mass

8 Why is this important? Air movements redistribute heat around the Earth Precipitation is our main source of fresh water All underground water, rivers, lakes get their water from rain and snow. They return water and nutrients back to the ocean

9 Earth’s heat balance Sun is the major energy source for Earth’s surface Atmosphere either absorbs or reflects 45% of sunlight 20% absorbed by clouds and atmosphere 25% reflected by clouds and atmosphere 55% of sun’s energy reaches Earth’s surface 50% is absorbed by Earth’s surface 5% is reflected by Earth’s surface 20% 25% 50% 5%

10 Earth’s heat balance At any time, only half of the Earth’s surface receives sunlight (makes day and night) The energy coming to earth is ultimately lost as heat radiating back into space

11 What is solar energy? Visible light UV light (ultraviolet light) Infrared light Makes it through the atmosphere to Earth with little absorption Is absorbed mostly in stratosphere by the ozone layer Some is absorbed by carbon dioxide and water in stratosphere and troposphere

12 Earth’s heat balance Solar Energy is reflected from various surfaces like clouds atmospheric particles snow reflective objects on Earth’s surface ALBEDO The measure of amount of energy something reflects Snow has high albedo Black sand has low albedo Yellow = reflection, red = absorption Left arrow – snow, right arrow -water To maintain balance between incoming energy from sun, eventually all energy Earth absorbs reradiates through various paths back to space as infrared radiation Unbalanced energy = Earth gets hotter, less likely we survive!

13 Greenhouse effect Important for life on Earth Atmosphere, after it absorbed infrared radiation, reradiates a lot of the heat back to Earth’s surface Most of the heat is collected in troposphere and stratosphere layers Without Greenhouse effect Earth would be on average 35°C (95°F) The concern is that increased carbon dioxide and other heat-retaining gasses will cause global warming and increase the overall temperature on Earth!

14 Uneven Heating If there would be even heating on earth, there would be little changes in temperature and no seasons But we know that there are seasons and temperature changes There are 3 primary factors that cause the Earth to heat unevenly: 1.Earth is spherical 2.Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted 3.Distance between Earth and sun varies with the time of the year

15 Uneven Heating 1.Earth is spherical Small part of sphere receives perpendicular light rays (mainly in areas around equator) Most of the sphere receives slanted light rays These slanted rays have same energy but got to cover larger area (means less energy per area unit) The farther North and South you go, the more slanted the sunlight reaching the surface Perpendicular rays Slanted rays In order to be perpendicular rays, they would have to come from this direction, which does not happen in this area!

16 Uneven Heating 2.Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted Earth does not spin with its axis perpendicular to the plane of its orbit Earth’s orbit inclines 23.5 degrees off Equator does not always receives perpendicular rays from the sun Depending on the time of the year, perpendicular sun rays fall anywhere between the Tropic of Cancer (23.5 ° north latitude) and Tropic of Capricorn (23.5 ° south latitude) Longest day of the year for each hemisphere is when the sun is directly overhead at the Tropic line

17 Uneven Heating 2.Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted The Amount of sunlight falling on different parts of Earth changes and creates seasons When the Earth is tilted with North Pole toward the sun = there is summer in North hemisphere (and winter in South hemisphere) When the Earth is tilted with North Pole away from the sun = there is winter in North hemisphere (and summer in South hemisphere)

18 Uneven Heating 3.Earth’s orbit is not circular Earth’s orbit is slightly elliptical Earth gets more heat when its orbit brings it closer to the sun Earth is closer to the sun during winter in North hemisphere and farther away from the sun during summer in North hemisphere This explains why North hemisphere has warmer winters and cooler summers than South hemisphere

19 Uneven Heating Biological Importance Based on seasons we can predict migratory patterns Gray whales annually migrate to Arctic waters to feed off blooming krill and plankton in summer In winter gray whales swim south to breed in warmer waters around the Mexican Baja Peninsula

20 Uneven Heating Convection Convection is vertical movement of currents caused by temperature differences in a fluid (like air) On Earth, equator is the “kitchen stove” warming up all the Earth’s air and the poles are the cold parts. Equator: air heats up and rises, travels towards the poles Poles: Air cools down and sinks, and moves back towards equator where it replaces warm air Solar energy absorbed by Earth surface causes a general global pattern of winds moving air between equator and poles Sun warms up Earth Earth warms up air in contact with it Warm air is less dense and raises High above, warm air cools down and becomes denser (moves down towards the Earth surface) Cold air replaces warm air (and cycle continues creating circular pattern)

21 Coriolis effect Is the tendency for the path of a moving object to deflect To the right on the Northern hemisphere To the left on the Southern hemisphere Coriolis effect Explains why we have winds in all directions, not just from north or south Effects also the ocean currents Is major factor affecting the distribution of the Earth’s heat, nutrients and many types of life Is caused by Earth’s rotation Is greater at higher latitudes Is zero at equator because the rotational velocity does not change

22 The wind Recall Convection causes general circulation pattern that moves air between the equator and the poles The Coriolis effect deflect air to the right as it travels (to the left in the southern hemisphere) This gives the air circular flow pattern rather than a straight north-south pattern It is not as simple as above! Wind patterns exists in small regions called atmospheric circulation cells Atmospheric circulation cells are six distinct air masses (3 in each hemisphere) with individual airflow patterns

23 The wind – 1. Hadley cells Most important atmospheric circulation cell They lie between the equator and 30 degree north or south latitude Warm air rises at the equator and moves northward due to convection Air does not make it all the way to the north pole By the time it reaches 30 ° N it becomes dense enough from cooling and moisture loss to sink Most of the air descends and flows back to the equator, deflecting to the right (westward) as it flows This causes trade winds (flow westward between equator and 30 ° latitude Trade winds are what brought ships to Europe and America centuries ago

24 The wind – 2. Ferrel cells Between approximately 30-60 degree latitude These cells exist because some of the wind that descends from Hadley cells does not turn toward the equator They continue towards the poles shifting to the right or left (depends on the hemisphere) The airflow forms the westerlies (because they are from the west) and blows towards the east The vertical circulation in Ferrel cells is opposite of what you would expect from convention because it is “sandwiched” between the Hadley cells and the Polar cells

25 The wind – 3.Polar cells These lie between approximately 60 degrees and the pole Airflow in the polar cell is similar to the Hadley cell Warm air at 60 degree rises and flows towards the pole, where it cools, descends, and flows back to the equator Coriolis effect deflects it, so that the prevailing polar winds go to the west The south –flowing cold air from the polar cells affects the air flowing north and eastward in the Ferrell cells. Two air masses do not easily mix due to the different densities and temperatures. Polar cell air rises and heads northward again from convection, and causes the Ferrell cell air to deflect upward

26 INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONES This is where the trade winds meet from both hemispheres 30 degrees north and south latitude Trade winds rise in this region Vertical movement of air in ITCZ transports large amounts of heat and moisture Water vapor condenses in the rising and cooling air, and rainstorms form. Some of the world’s wettest climates are in the ITCZ Surface winds are weak Sailors call this area doldrums because they could be stranded there without winds ITCZ influences climates and weather, and the seasons and landmasses affect the ITCZ

27 INTERTROPICAL CONVERGENCE ZONES This is the reason why there is a difference between the geographical equator and the meteorological equator (ITCZ) Geographical equator is 0 degrees latitude ITCZ is an imaginary line marking the temperature equilibriums between the hemispheres that shift North and south with seasonal changes. It shifts because land has lower heat capacity than water, and there is more land mass in the northern hemisphere. Not a straight line due to the landmass affects its location The ITCZ equator is important because atmospheric circulation is approximate symmetrical on either side of it 30 degree latitude leads to high evaporation and little rain fall Most of the earth’s desert are at this latitude There is a higher salinity around 30 degree latitude More water is evaporated that returns to the ocean making a higher salinity concentration

28 Monsoons Seasonal wind pattern changes caused by heating or cooling on the continents Causes summers with significant rainfall and winters with very little Results when air warmed by a hot landmass rises Warm, moist air from the ocean flows in to replace it; this in turns also rise Cools, which causes rain When winter comes the cycle is reversed Wind reverses and land has very little rain Common in India and southeast Asia

29 Cyclones Large rotation storm systems of low pressure air with converging wind at the center Also called typhoon or hurricanes Two types: extra tropical and tropical

30 Cyclones - Tropical From within a single atmospheric cell Form in low latitudes Experience explosive growth because of extremely rapid transport of heat and moisture into the atmosphere from the surface of the warm, tropical ocean They quickly dissipate once they hit land due to the loss of heat Cyclones move tremendous amounts of heat from the tropics to higher latitudes very quickly One cyclone can release about as much energy as the USA uses in an entire year This redistribution of heat is important to life on earth

31 Cyclones - Extratropical Form in higher latitude Forms as an area of low air pressure intensifies Occurs between the westbound polar winds and eastbound westerlies These do not become hurricanes or typhoons They do cause hurricane strength winds, huge ocean waves rain and snow outside the tropics


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